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Please,please help me Lanthanoid contraction is caused due to

Lanthanoid contraction is caused due to

  • Option 1)

    the appreciable shielding on outer electrons by 4f electrons from the nuclear charge

  • Option 2)

    the appreciable shielding on outer electrons by 5d electrons from the nuclear charge

  • Option 3)

    the same effective nuclear charge from Ce to Lu

  • Option 4)

    the imperfect shielding on outer electrons by 4f electrons from the nuclear charge

 
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Option 1)

the appreciable shielding on outer electrons by 4f electrons from the nuclear charge

Option 2)

the appreciable shielding on outer electrons by 5d electrons from the nuclear charge

Option 3)

the same effective nuclear charge from Ce to Lu

Option 4)

the imperfect shielding on outer electrons by 4f electrons from the nuclear charge

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