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Use of an artificial kidney during haemodialysis may result in:

(a) Nitrogeneous waste build-up in the body

(b) Non-elimination of excess potassium ions

(c) Reduced absorption of calcium ions from gastro-intenstinal tract

(d) Reduced RBC production

Which of the following options is the most appropriate ?

  • Option 1)

    (a) and (b) are correct

  • Option 2)

    (b) and (c) are correct

  • Option 3)

    (c) and (d) are correct

  • Option 4)

    (a) and (d) are correct

Option 1) a & b are correct

Tidal Volume and Expiratory Reserve Volume of an athlete is 500 \; mL and 1000 \; mL respectively, What will be his Expiratory Capacity if the Residual Volume is 1200 \; mL ?

  • Option 1)

    1500\; mL

  • Option 2)

    1700\: mL

  • Option 3)

    2200\: mL

  • Option 4)

    2700\: mL

  Expiratory Capacity (EC) - Total volume of air a person can expire after a normal inspiration - wherein This includes tidal volume and expiratory reserve volume (TV+ERV)       Expiratory Capacity                                                                  Option 1)Option 2)Option 3)Option 4)

How does steroid hormone influence the cellular activities?

 

  • Option 1)

    Changing the permeability of the cell membrane

  • Option 2)

    Binding to DNA and forming a gene - hormone complex

  • Option 3)

    Activating cyclic AMP located on the cell membrane.

     

  • Option 4)

    Using aquaporin channels as secondary messenger

 
  Hormones can be divided into groups - On the basis of their chemical nature, hormones can be divided into groups : (i) peptide, polypeptide, protein hormones (e.g., insulin, glucagon, pituitary hormones, hypothalamic hormones, etc.) (ii) steroids (e.g., cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and progesterone)  - wherein (iii) iodothyronines (thyroid hormones) (iv) amino-acid derivatives (e.g.,...

What would be the heart rate of a person if the cardiac output is 5L, blood volume in the ventricls at the end of the diastole is 100mL and at the end of ventricular systole is 50mL?

  • Option 1)

    50 beats per minute

  • Option 2)

    75 beats per minute

  • Option 3)

    100 beats per minute

  • Option 4)

    125 beats per minute

  Cardiac Output - The stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate (number of beats per min.) gives the cardiac output. - wherein The cardiac output can be defined as the volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle per minute and averages 5000 mL or 5 litres in a healthy individual. The body has the ability to alter the stroke volume as well as the heart rate and thereby the cardiac output....

Select the correct option:

 

  • Option 1)

    8th ,9th and 10th pairs of the ribs articulate directly with the sternum.

  • Option 2)

    11th and 12th pairs of ribs are connected to the sternum with the help of hylaine cartilage.

     

  • Option 3)

    Each rib is a flat thin bone and all the ribes areconnected dorsally to the thorace vertebrae and ventrally to the sternum

  • Option 4)

    There are seven pairs of vetebramnal three pairs of vertebrochondral and two pairs of vertebral ribs.

     

  Structure of Ribs - Dorsally, the ribs are attached to the thoracic vertebrae and ventrally connected to the sternum with the help of hyaline cartilage. -    Option 1)8th ,9th and 10th pairs of the ribs articulate directly with the sternum.Option 2)11th and 12th pairs of ribs are connected to the sternum with the help of hylaine cartilage.  Option 3)Each rib is a flat thin bone and all the...

Which of the following statements is correct?

  • Option 1)

    Cornea is an external, transparent and protective proteinacious covering of the eye - ball

  • Option 2)

    Cornea consists of dense connective tissue of elastin and can repair itself

  • Option 3)

    Corena is convex, transparent layer which is higly vascularised.

  • Option 4)

    Corena consists of dense matrix of collegen and is the most senstive portion of eye.

     

  Cornea - The anteriorportion of this layer is called the cornea. - wherein The middle layer, choroid, contains many blood vessels and looks bluish in colour. The choroid layer is thin over the posterior two-thirds of the eye ball, but it becomes thick in the anterior part to form the ciliary body.     Cornea is the eye outermost layer. It is external and transparent cornea is protective in...

Which part of the brain is responsible for thermoregulation?

 

  • Option 1)

    Cerebrum

  • Option 2)

    Hypothalamus

  • Option 3)

    Corpus callosum 

  • Option 4)

    Medulla oblongata

  Hypothalamus - Another very important part of the brain called hypothalamus lies at the base of the thalamus. - wherein The hypothalamus contains a number of centres which control body temperature, urge for eating and drinking. It also contains several groups of neurosecretory cells, which secrete hormones called hypothalamic hormones.     Hypothalamus is the part of the brain involved in the...

Which of the following factors is responsible for the formation of concentrated urine?

 

  • Option 1)

    Low levels of antidiuretic hormone

  • Option 2)

    Maintaining hypersmolarity towards inner medullary interstitium in the kidneys.

     

  • Option 3)

    Secretion of erythroprotein by Juxtaglomerular complex.

     

  • Option 4)

    Hydroststic pressure during glomerular filtration.

     

  Processes involved in Urine formation - Reabsorption - wherein A comparison of the volume of the filtrate formed per day (180 litres per day) with that of the urine released (1.5 litres), suggest that nearly 99 per cent of the filtrate has to be reabsorbed by the renal tubules. This process is called reabsorption.     The factors responsible for forming a concentrated urine are: 1. High...

Match the following hormones with the respective disease:

a. Insulin                                                 i. Addisons's 

b. Thyroxin                                              ii.Diabetes insipidus  

c. Corticoids                                            iii. Acromegaly

d. Growth hormone                                iv. Goitre

                                                                v. Diabetes mellitus

Select the correct option

  • Option 1)

    a - v, b-i, c - ii, d-iii

     

  • Option 2)

    a-ii, b-iv, c-iii, d-i

  • Option 3)

    a-v, b-iv, c-i, d-iii

  • Option 4)

    a-ii, b-iv, c-i, d-iii

  Role of Thyroid hormones - Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of the basal metabolic rate. - wherein These hormones also support the process of red blood cell formation.       Insulin deficiency caused diabetes mellius Over production of thyroxin causes goitre Deficiency of corticoids such as cortisol causes Addisions disease Hyper secretion of growth hormone causes...

Which of the following glucose transporter is insulin - dependent?

 

  • Option 1)

    GLUT - I

  • Option 2)

    GULT II

  • Option 3)

    GULT III

  • Option 4)

    GULT IV

  Insulin - Insulin is a peptide hormone, which plays a major role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis - wherein Insulin acts mainly on hepatocytes and adipocytes (cells of adipose tissue), and enhances cellular glucose uptake and utilization       Among the options given, GULT -I is insulin independent while GULT -IV is insulin dependent. The fuctions and roles of GUlT - II and GULT - III...

Match the following structures with their respective loaction in organs:

a. Crypts of Lieberkuhn                    i. Pancreas

b. Glisson's Capsule                        ii. Duodenum

c. Islets of Langerhans                    iii. small intestine

d. Brunner's gland                            iv. Liver

  • Option 1)

    a-iii, b-i, c-ii, d-iv

  • Option 2)

    a-ii, b-iv, c-i, d-iii

  • Option 3)

    a-iii, b-iv, c-i, d-ii

  • Option 4)

    a-iii, b-ii, c-i, d-iv

  Regions in Small Intestine - Duodenum  - wherein The duodenum is a short structure ranging from 20 cm (7.9 inches) to 25 cm (9.8 inches) in length, and shaped like a "C".  It surrounds the head of the pancreas. It receives gastric chyme from the stomach, together with digestive juices from the pancreas (digestive enzymes) and the liver (bile). The digestive enzymes break down proteins and...

Match the following Column I and Column II

Column I                                              Column II

a. P - wave                                              i. Depolarization of ventricles

b. QRS complex                                     ii.  Repolarization of ventricles

c. T - wave                                              iii.  Coronary ischemia

d. Reduction in the size of T - wave       iv. Depolarization of artia

 

  • Option 1)

    a-iii, b-i, c-ii, d-iv

  • Option 2)

    a-ii, b-iv, c-i, d-iii

  • Option 3)

    a-iii, b-iv, c-i, d-iii

  • Option 4)

    a-iv, b-i, c-ii, d- iii

  ECG - Electrocardiogram - wherein ECG is a graphical representation of the electrical activity of the heart during a cardiac cycle.     P - wave - Depolarization of atria QRS complex - Depolarization of ventricles T - wave - Repolarization of ventricles Reduction in the size of T - wave - Coronary IschemiaOption 1)a-iii, b-i, c-ii, d-ivOption 2)a-ii, b-iv, c-i, d-iiiOption 3)a-iii, b-iv,...

Identify the cells whose secretion protects the lining of gastro - intestinal tract from various enzymes.

 

  • Option 1)

    Cheif cells

  • Option 2)

    Goblet cells

  • Option 3)

    Oxyntic cells

  • Option 4)

    Duodenal cells

  Goblet Cells - The intestinal mucosal epithelium has goblet cells which secrete mucus. - wherein The secretions of the brush border cells of the mucosa alongwith the secretions of the goblet cells constitute the intestinal juice or succus entericus       Secretion of globet cells i.e. mucus protects the GI tract from various enzyme.  Option 1)Cheif cellsOption 2)Goblet cellsOption 3)Oxyntic...
Resp. mam What is Cardia achalasia?

@Rashmi

have a look on this diagram.

Image result for cardia achalasia

Normal Stomach Achalasia Oesophagus Sphincter not working property Stomach Dilation (widening) of the oesophagus
Screenshot_20190304_071110.png What will if the stretch reeqnors Of the urinary bladder wall are totally (I) Micturition will continue (2) Urine will continue to eolleet normally in the bladder (3) There will no micturition (4) Urine will not collect in the Naur : Micturition is same as urination. Urination is the act of passing urine which is a reflex phenomenon. As urine accumulates in bladder the stretch arv activated that pass the stimulus to the spinal cord. In the al—nce of stretch receptors the urine would get and proinbly overflow. Correct choice : (3)
@Subhiksha explaination is correct, but the given option is wrong.
What is that one major difference between bone and cartilage????
@Drmohamed ashraf Bones are the hard, inelastic and a tough organ that forms part of the vertebral skeleton while cartilage is soft, elastic and flexible connective tissue that protects the bone from rubbing against each other.
What is perineal glands?
@Drmohamed ashraf  perineal glands are situated near the anus in some mammals and secrete an odorous substance.
sensation of stomach pain is due to a)interceptors b)exterocepters c)propriocepters c)telorecepters ................and why thnku mam .... and the other recepters are belongs to ?

@Gopika p

Exterocepters, respond to stimuli arising outside body.

Propriocepters are sensors that provide information about joint angle, muscle length, and muscle tension, which is integrated to give information about the position of the limb in space.

 

Removal of digestive wastes, solidified into coherent faeces in rectum initate a neural reflex causing an urge or desire for its removal the process known as:
@Vijay Patil this process is called as peristaltic movement
and tell bhors effect and haldane effect
@Krupa Bohr effect: It occurs when there is an increase in carbon dioxide that is (CO2) concentration in the blood, which results in a lower blood pH. This results in a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the blood needed for transport. Haldane effect: It is slightly the opposite of the Bohr effect in that more oxygen from the hemoglobin is available for transport and less of a concentration of...
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