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Which of the following statements is not correct ?

  • Option 1)

    Lysosomes have numerous hydrolytic enzymes.

  • Option 2)

    The hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomes are active under acidic pH.

  • Option 3)

    Lysosomes are membrane bound structures.

  • Option 4)

    Lysosomes are formed by the process of packaging in the endoplasmic reticulum.

  Golgi Apparatus - Principally performs the function of packaging materials, to be delivered either to intracellular targets or secreted outside of the cell.    - wherein It is the important site for the formation of glycoproteins and glycolipids.     Lysosomes are the membrane found hydrolytic enzymes containing vesicles that are given off through the golgi bodies.Option 1)Lysosomes have...

Which of the following statements regarding mitochondria is incorrect ?

  • Option 1)

    Outer membrane is permeable to monomers of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

  • Option 2)

    Enzymes of electron transport are embedded in outer membrane.

  • Option 3)

    Inner membrane is convoluted with infoldings.

  • Option 4)

    Mitochondrial matrix contains single circular DNA molecule and ribosomes.

answer 2 is correct

Select the correct sequence of organs in the alimentary canal of cockroach starting from mouth :

 

  • Option 1)

    Pharynx  \rightarrow Oesophagus \rightarrow Crop \rightarrow Gizzard \rightarrow Ileum \rightarrow Colon \rightarrow Rectum

  • Option 2)

    Pharynx  \rightarrow Oesophagus \rightarrow  Gizzard \rightarrow Crop \rightarrow Ileum \rightarrow Colon \rightarrow Rectum

  • Option 3)

    Pharynx  \rightarrow Oesophagus \rightarrow  Gizzard \rightarrow  Ileum \rightarrow Crop \rightarrow Colon \rightarrow Rectum

  • Option 4)

    Pharynx  \rightarrow Oesophagus \rightarrow  Ileum \rightarrow Crop \rightarrow Gizzard \rightarrow Colon \rightarrow Rectum

 
  Alimentary canal of cockroach - The alimentary canal of cockroach is divided into three parts, foregut, midgut, and hindgut.  - wherein Foregut (stomodeum) is differentiated into five parts. Buccal chamber or mouth cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, crop and gizzard        The alimentary canal of cockroach has the following organs in order...

From evolutionary point of view, retention of thje female gametophyte with developing young embryo on the parent sporophyte for some time, is first observed in :

  • Option 1)

    Liverworts

  • Option 2)

    Mosses

  • Option 3)

    Pteridophytes

  • Option 4)

    Gymnosperms

  Reproduction of Pteridophyta - Asexual by meiospores formed inside sporangia which is associated with sporophylls (sporophytes). Gamatophytes develop from spores  and are haploid and independent and reproduce sexually. Zygote, thus produced from diploid sporophyte. - wherein Two other ways of reproduction include: Apogamy and Apospory.       Rentention of the female gametophyte with...

Which of the following immune responses is responsible for rejection of kidney graft ?

 

  • Option 1)

    Auto-immune response

  • Option 2)

    Humoral immune response

  • Option 3)

    Inflammatory immune response

  • Option 4)

    Cell-mediated immune response

  Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) - The second type of immunity is called cell-mediated immune response or cell-mediated immunity (CMI). - wherein The T-lymphocytes mediate CMI       Rejection of organ transplants is performed by the T-cells based in the MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Antigen.T-cells are involved in cell-mediated immune response.Option 1)Auto-immune responseOption...

Select the incorrect statement:

 

  • Option 1)

    Male fruit fly is heterogametic.

  • Option 2)

    In male grasshopers,50% of sperms have no sex-chromosome.

  • Option 3)

    In domesticated fowls, sex of progeny depends on the type of sperm rather than egg.

  • Option 4)

    Human males have one of their sex-chromosome much shorter than the other.

  Basis of Sex Determination - The cytological observations made in a number of insects lead to the development of the concept of genetic/chromosomal basis of sex. - wherein Experiments were performed by Henking (1891).     In fowls the sex is determined by the ovum and not sperm because in birds, the females are heterogametic (zw) and males are hemogametic (zz)Option 1)Male fruit fly is...

Variations caused by mutation, as proposed by Hugo de Vries, are:

  • Option 1)

    random and directional

  • Option 2)

    random and directionless

  • Option 3)

    small and directional

  • Option 4)

    small and directionless

  Hugo De Vries Mutation Theory - This theory states that new species arise from the pre-existing one in single generation situation by sudden  appearance of marked genetic variation called mutation - wherein According to De Vries, evolution in a discontinous and jerky process, rather than a continious and gradual one       According to Hugo De Vries, mutuations are discontinuous, random and...

Which of the following is a commercial blood cholesterol lowering agent ?

 

  • Option 1)

    Cyclosporin A

  • Option 2)

    Statin

  • Option 3)

    Streptokinase

  • Option 4)

    Lipases

  Statins - Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus - wherein used as blood-cholesterol lowering agents. It acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme responsible for synthesis of cholesterol.     Statins are produced by the yeast Monoscus purpureus. They are commercially used as blood cholesterol lowering agents.Option 1)Cyclosporin AOption 2)StatinOption 3)StreptokinaseOption 4)Lipases

A gene locus has two alleles A,a. If the frequency of dominant allele A is 0.4 ,then what will be the frequency of homozygous dominant, heterozygous and homozygous recessive individuals in the population ?

 

  • Option 1)

    0.36(AA);0.48(Aa);0.16(aa)

  • Option 2)

    0.16(AA);0.24(Aa);0.36(aa)

  • Option 3)

    0.16(AA);0.48(Aa);0.36(aa)

  • Option 4)

    0.16(AA);0.36(Aa);0.48(aa)

  The Hardy-Weinberg formulas - This formula allows detecting  frequencies that change from generation thus allowing a simplified method of determining that evolution is occurring. - wherein In a population at equilibrium for a locus of two alleles D and d having frequencies p and q respectively, the genotype frequencies are:  DD=p2, Dd= 2 pq, dd= q2  and p+q =1 p2+2 pq +q2 = 1     Given :   ...

The concept of " Omnis cellula -e-cellula" regarding cell division was first proposed by:

 

  • Option 1)

    Rudolf Virchow 

  • Option 2)

    Theodore Schwann

  • Option 3)

    Schleiden

  • Option 4)

    Aristotle

  Cell Theory - Cell theory states that all living matter, from the simplest of unicellular organisms to every complex higher plants and animals, is composed of cells and each cell can act independently but functions as an inetgral part of complete organism -       Rudolf Virchow proposed the concept of " Omnis cellula -e-cellula" which means that the new cells arise from the pre - existing...

What is the fate of the male gametes discharged in the synergid?

 

  • Option 1)

    One fuses with with the egg other(s) degentrate in the synergid

  • Option 2)

    All fuse with the egg

  • Option 3)

    One fuses with the egg, other(s) fuse with the synergid nucleus.

  • Option 4)

    One fuses with with the egg and other fuses with central cell nuclei

 
  Double Fertilisation - After entering one of the synergids, the  pollen tube releases the two male gametes into the cytoplasm of the synergid. One of the male gametes moves towards the egg cell and fuses with its nucleus thus completing the syngamy. This results in the formation of a diploid cell, the zygote. -       Out of the two male gamete that are discharged in the synergid cell via...

How does steroid hormone influence the cellular activities?

 

  • Option 1)

    Changing the permeability of the cell membrane

  • Option 2)

    Binding to DNA and forming a gene - hormone complex

  • Option 3)

    Activating cyclic AMP located on the cell membrane.

     

  • Option 4)

    Using aquaporin channels as secondary messenger

 
  Hormones can be divided into groups - On the basis of their chemical nature, hormones can be divided into groups : (i) peptide, polypeptide, protein hormones (e.g., insulin, glucagon, pituitary hormones, hypothalamic hormones, etc.) (ii) steroids (e.g., cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and progesterone)  - wherein (iii) iodothyronines (thyroid hormones) (iv) amino-acid derivatives (e.g.,...

Which of the following pair of organelles does not contain DNA?

 

  • Option 1)

    Mitochondria and Lysosomes 

  • Option 2)

    Chloroplast and Vacuole 

  • Option 3)

    Lysosomes and Vacuoles 

  • Option 4)

    Nuclear envelope and Mitochondria 

  Mitochondria - Each mitochondria is a double membrane bound structure with the outer membrane and the inner membrane dividing its lumen distinctly into two aqueous compartments.   - wherein It is the site of aerobic respiration. It produces cellular energy in the form of ATP, hence called as 'power house' of the cell.     Nucleus, Mitochondria and Plastids contain DNA. Mitochondria and...

Match the following organisms with their respective characteristics:

(a)  Pila                                  (i)   Flame cells

(b)  Bombyx                           (ii)   Comb plates

(c)  Pleurobrachia                  (iii)   Radula

(d)  Taenia                              (iv)  Malpighian

                                                         tubules

Select the correct option from the following :

 

  • Option 1)

    (a)\; \; \; \; \; (b)\; \; \; \; \; (c)\; \; \;\ (d)

    (iii)\; \; \; \; (ii)\; \; \; \; (i)\; \; \;\; (iv)

     

     

     

     

  • Option 2)

    (a)\; \; \; \; \; (b)\; \; \; \; \; (c)\; \; \;\ (d)

    (iii)\; \; \; \; \; (iv)\; \; \; \; \; (ii)\; \; \;\ (i)

  • Option 3)

    (a)\; \; \; \; \; (b)\; \; \; \; \; (c)\; \; \;\ (d)

    (ii)\; \; \; \; \; (iv)\; \; \; \; \; (iii)\; \; \;\ (i)

  • Option 4)

    (a)\; \; \; \; \; (b)\; \; \; \; \; (c)\; \; \;\ (d)

    (iii)\; \; \; \; \; (ii)\; \; \; \; \; (iv)\; \; \;\ (i)

 
  Excretion in Platyhelminthes - It is through single or paired protonephridium with flame cells. -       Pila has radula (a rasping organ) Bombyx is an arthropoda, it has malpighian tubules. Pleurobranchia is a ctenophore, it has comb plates. Taenia is a platyhelminth, it has flame cells. Option 1)         Option 2) Option 3) Option 4)

Which of the following contracepative methods do involve a role of hormone?

 

 

  • Option 1)

    Lactational amenorrhea, Pills, Emergency contraceptives

  • Option 2)

    Barrier method, Lactional amenorrhea, Pills

  • Option 3)

    CuT, Pills, Emergency contraceptive

  • Option 4)

    Pills, Emergency contraceptives, Barrier method

  Lactational amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) - Is another natural method to avoid pregnancy. - wherein This method is based on the fact that ovulation and therefore the cycle do not occur during the period of intense lactation following parturition. Therefore, as long as the mother breastfeeds the child fully, chances of conception are almost nil.       Lactational amenorrhea is marked...

Polyblend, a fine powder of recycled modified plastic, has proved to be a good material for:

 

  • Option 1)

    making plastic sacks

  • Option 2)

    use as a fertilizer

  • Option 3)

    construction of roads

  • Option 4)

    making tubes and pipes

Polyblend is a mixture of polymers specifically recycled modified plastic. It is used in the construction of a roads as it produces shrink and crash resistant layers.  Option 1)making plastic sacksOption 2)use as a fertilizerOption 3)construction of roadsOption 4)making tubes and pipes

Which of the follwoing protocols did aim for reducing emissions of chloroflurocarbons into the atmosphere?

  • Option 1)

    Montreal protocol

  • Option 2)

    Kyoto protocol

  • Option 3)

    Gothenburg protocol

  • Option 4)

    Geneva protocol

 

Montreal Protocol -

Recognising the deleterious affects of ozone depletion, an international conference treaty, known as the Montreal Protocol, was signed at Montreal (Canada).

- wherein

In 1987 (effective in 1989) to control the emission of ozone depleting substances. Subsequently many more efforts have been made and protocols have laid down definite roadmaps, separately for developed and developing countries, for reducing the emission of CFCs and other ozone depleting chemicals.

 

 

 

  • Monteral Protocol is an international treaty signed in 1987 to control the emission of ozone depleting substances, such as chloroflurocarbons (CFCs)
  •  Kyoto protocol commits the party states to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
  • Gotherburg protocol was signed to reduce acidification , eutrophication and ground level ozone.
  • Geneva protocol prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons as warfare methods.

 


Option 1)

Montreal protocol

Option 2)

Kyoto protocol

Option 3)

Gothenburg protocol

Option 4)

Geneva protocol

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What would be the heart rate of a person if the cardiac output is 5L, blood volume in the ventricls at the end of the diastole is 100mL and at the end of ventricular systole is 50mL?

  • Option 1)

    50 beats per minute

  • Option 2)

    75 beats per minute

  • Option 3)

    100 beats per minute

  • Option 4)

    125 beats per minute

  Cardiac Output - The stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate (number of beats per min.) gives the cardiac output. - wherein The cardiac output can be defined as the volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle per minute and averages 5000 mL or 5 litres in a healthy individual. The body has the ability to alter the stroke volume as well as the heart rate and thereby the cardiac output....

Which of the following can be used as a biocontrol agent in the treatment of plant disease?

 

  • Option 1)

    Trichoderma 

  • Option 2)

    Chlorella

  • Option 3)

    Anabaena

  • Option 4)

    Lactobacillus

  Microbial Biocontrol agents - fungus Trichoderma. developed for use in the treatment of plant disease - wherein Trichoderma species are free-living fungi that are very common in the root ecosystems. They are effective biocontrol agents of several plant pathogens.     Trichoderma is the genus of free living fungi that commonly occur in the root ecosystem. They are efficiently used as...

Match ColumnI with Column II

 Column I                                                                 Column II

a. Saprophytes                                                        i. Symbiotic association of fungi with plant roots            

b. Parasite                                                               ii. Decomposition of dead organic materials

c. Lichens                                                                iii. Living on living plants or animals

d. Mycorrhiza                                                            iv. Symbiotic association of algae and fungi

Choose the correct answer from the options given below

 

  • Option 1)

    a-i, b-ii , c-ii d-iv

  • Option 2)

    a-iii, b-ii, c-i, d-iv

  • Option 3)

    a-ii, b-i, c-iii, d-iv

  • Option 4)

    a-ii, b-iii, c-iv. d-i

  saprotrophs - The detritus food chain (DFC) begins with dead organic matter. It is made up of decomposers which are heterotrophic organisms, mainly fungi and bacteria. - wherein They meet their energy and nutrient requirements by degrading dead organic matter or detritus. These are also known as saprotrophs (sapro: to decompose). Decomposers secrete digestive enzymes that breakdown dead and...
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