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Drug called 'Heroin' is synthesized by:

 

  • Option 1)

    methylation of morphine

  • Option 2)

    acetylation of morphine

  • Option 3)

    glycosylation of morphine

  • Option 4)

    nitration of morphine

  Heroin - Commonly called smack is chemically diacetylmorphine which is a white, odourless, bitter crystalline compound. - wherein   This is obtained by acetylation of morphine, which is extracted from the latex of poppy plant Papaver somniferum Generally taken by snorting and injection, heroin is a depressant and slows down body functions.      Herion is a chemically diacetylmorphine...

Which of the following immune responses is responsible for rejection of kidney graft ?

 

  • Option 1)

    Auto-immune response

  • Option 2)

    Humoral immune response

  • Option 3)

    Inflammatory immune response

  • Option 4)

    Cell-mediated immune response

  Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) - The second type of immunity is called cell-mediated immune response or cell-mediated immunity (CMI). - wherein The T-lymphocytes mediate CMI       Rejection of organ transplants is performed by the T-cells based in the MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Antigen.T-cells are involved in cell-mediated immune response.Option 1)Auto-immune responseOption...

Which of the following is a commercial blood cholesterol lowering agent ?

 

  • Option 1)

    Cyclosporin A

  • Option 2)

    Statin

  • Option 3)

    Streptokinase

  • Option 4)

    Lipases

  Statins - Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus - wherein used as blood-cholesterol lowering agents. It acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme responsible for synthesis of cholesterol.     Statins are produced by the yeast Monoscus purpureus. They are commercially used as blood cholesterol lowering agents.Option 1)Cyclosporin AOption 2)StatinOption 3)StreptokinaseOption 4)Lipases

Which of the following can be used as a biocontrol agent in the treatment of plant disease?

 

  • Option 1)

    Trichoderma 

  • Option 2)

    Chlorella

  • Option 3)

    Anabaena

  • Option 4)

    Lactobacillus

  Microbial Biocontrol agents - fungus Trichoderma. developed for use in the treatment of plant disease - wherein Trichoderma species are free-living fungi that are very common in the root ecosystems. They are effective biocontrol agents of several plant pathogens.     Trichoderma is the genus of free living fungi that commonly occur in the root ecosystem. They are efficiently used as...

Select the incorrect statement:

  • Option 1)

    Inbreeding increases homozygosity

  • Option 2)

    Inbreeding is essential to evolve purelines in any animal

  • Option 3)

    Inbreeding selects harmful recessive genes tat reduce fertility and productivity.

     

  • Option 4)

    Inbreeding helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of undesirable genes.

     

  Disadvantages of Inbreeding - Inbreeding depression - wherein Continued inbreeding, especially close inbreeding, usually reduces fertility and even productivity. This is called inbreeding depression.        Disadvantages of Inbreeding - Inbreeding depression - wherein Continued inbreeding, especially close inbreeding, usually reduces fertility and even productivity. This is called inbreeding...

Match the following organisms with the products they produce:

a. Lactobacillus                                            i. Cheese

b. Saccharomyces cerevisiae                     ii. Curd

c. Apergillus niger                                       iii Citric acid

d. Acetobacter aceti                                    iv. Bread

                                                                     v. Acetic acid

 

  • Option 1)

    a-ii, b-iv, c- v, d-iii

  • Option 2)

    a-ii, b-iv, c-iii, d-v

  • Option 3)

    a-iii, b-iv, c-v, d-i

  • Option 4)

    a-ii, b-i, c-iii, d-v

  Microbes in household products – lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - Micro-organisms such as Lactobacillus and others commonly called lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grow in milk and convert it to curd. - wherein During growth, the LAB produce acids that coagulate and partially digest the milk proteins. A small amount of curd added to the fresh milk as inoculum or starter contain millions of LAB, which...

Select the correct group of biocontrol agents:

 

  • Option 1)

    Bacillus thuringiensis , Tobacco mosiac virus , Aphids

  • Option 2)

    Trichoderma, Baculatarius, Bacillus thuringiensis

  • Option 3)

    Oscillatoria , Rhizobium , Trichoderma

  • Option 4)

    Nostoc , Azospririllum, Nucleopolyhedrovirus

  Biocontrol - Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods for controlling plant diseases and pests. - wherein these problems are been tackled increasingly by the use of chemicals – by use of insecticides and pesticides. These chemicals are toxic and extremely harmful, to human beings and animals alike, and have been polluting our environment (soil, groundwater), fruits, vegetables and...

Colostrum, the yellowish fluid, secreted by mother during the initial days of lactation is a very essential to mpart immunity to the new born baby infants because it contains:

 

  • Option 1)

    Natural killer cells

  • Option 2)

    Monocytes 

  • Option 3)

    Macrophages 

  • Option 4)

    Immunoglobulin A

  Colostrum - The yellowish fluid colostrum secreted by mother during the initial days of lactation has abundant antibodies (IgA) to protect the infant. - wherein The foetus also receives some antibodies from their mother, through the placenta during pregnancy. These are some examples of passive immunity.     Colostrum is the first milk secreted by at the time of parturition. It contains more...

Identify the correct pair representing the causative agent of typhoid fever and the confirmatory test for typhoid.

  • Option 1)

    Plasmodium vivax / UTI test

  • Option 2)

    Streptococcus pneumoniae / Widal test

  • Option 3)

    Salmonella typhi / Anthrone test 

  • Option 4)

    Salmonella typhi / Widal test 

Typhoid is a systematic bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi usually through ingestion of contaminated food or water. Diagnosis of thyphoid can be done by widal test. Plasmodium vivax causes malaria, while Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for causing Pneumonia.  UTI test is used for diagnose of urinary tract infectious while anthrone test is a method for quantitative analysis...
is rheumatoid disease is an autoimmune disorder ?
Yes, it is an autoimmune disease.
bbb.PNG Question 64 of 189 Cocaine stimulates the synapses of specific neurons that release dopamine and other monoamines, by 1. inhibiting enzyme inactivation of dopamine or monoamines 2. blocking the dopamine or monoamine reuptake into the presynaptic axon ending 3. mimicking the effects of dopamine or monoamines on the postsynaptic cell 4. facilitating the release of dopamine or monoamines from the presynaptic terminal
@Krupa the correct ans of this question is 2. Cocaine binds with the dopamine transporter thus blocking the removal and reuptake of dopamine. This causes its build up and an amplified effect is seen.
please explain lethargy,pharyngitis,vesiculopustular lesions and nongonococcal urethritis
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy. It can be accompanied by depression, decreased motivation, or apathy. Lethargy can be a normal response to inadequate sleep, overexertion, overworking, stress, lack of exercise, improper nutrition, boredom, or a symptom of a disorder. It may also be a side-effect of medication or caused by an interaction between...
Screenshot_2019-01-20-10-59-39-17.png Which one of the following is the most likely root cause why menstruation is not taking place in regularly cycling human female Your Answer: maintenance of high concentration of sex hormones in the bloodstream Correct Answer: fertilisation of the ovum Solution: As we discussed in concept Major events of the menstrual cycle - The cycle starts with the menstrual phase, when menstrual flow occurs and it lasts for 3-5 days . The menstrual flow results due to breakdown of endometrial lining of the uterus and its blood vessels which forms liquid that comes out through vagina
@Drmohamed ashraf Fertilization of ovum is the most likely root cause wh menstruation is not taking place in regularly cycling human female. fertilized ovum will  continue travvelling down the fallopian tube, taking several days until it reaches the uterus. When it arrives, it attaches itself to the lining of the uterus and continues to grow. 
Why the development of vaccine is difficult for AIDS?
An HIV vaccine cannot consist of attenuated, actively replicating (live) HIV, due to possible reactivation. Killed whole virus (like the polio vaccine) might also be dangerous because one could not be sure one has killed all viral particles. A killed whole virus vaccine had also worked poorly in animal studies. There were successful vaccines that use subunits of viruses such as individual...
What is biofortification ? Why it is considered as the need of the hour today ?
Biofortification – breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals, or higher protein and healthier fats – is the most practical means to improve public health. Breeding for improved nutritional quality is undertaken with the objectives of improving – (i) Protein content and quality; (ii) Oil content and quality; (iii) Vitamin content; and (iv) Micronutrient and mineral content.  
What is Hay fever ?
Hay fever, or allergic rhinitis, is a common condition with symptoms similar to those of a cold. There may be sneezing, congestion, runny nose, and sinus pressure. It is caused by an allergic response to airborne substances, such as pollen. The time of year it happens depends on what substance, or allergen, the person reacts to. Despite its name, hay fever does not mean that the person is...
Medical
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can I get chapter wise practise questions???? and not unit wise...I wanted to solve questions on morphology and not the whole structural organisation.
  @Vaibhavi Gat  There is a practice question for each concept
Medical
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Conversion of milk to curd improves its nutritional value by increasing the amount of

  • Option 1)

    Vitamin B12

  • Option 2)

    Vitamin A

  • Option 3)

    Vitamin D

  • Option 4)

    Vitamin E

 

As we learnt in

Microbes in household products – lactic acid bacteria (LAB) -

Micro-organisms such as Lactobacillus and others commonly called lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grow in milk and convert it to curd.

- wherein

During growth, the LAB produce acids that coagulate and partially digest the milk proteins. A small amount of curd added to the fresh milk as inoculum or starter contain millions of LAB, which at suitable temperatures multiply, thus converting milk to curd, which also improves its nutritional quality by increasing vitamin B12.

 

Curd has enriched presence of vitamins specially Vit-B12.

 


Option 1)

Vitamin B12

This is correct.

Option 2)

Vitamin A

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

Vitamin D

This is incorrect.

Option 4)

Vitamin E

This is incorrect.

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Medical
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Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease ?

  • Option 1)

    Alzheimer's disease

  • Option 2)

    Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Option 3)

    Psoriasis

  • Option 4)

    Vitiligo

 

As we learnt in

Auto-immune disease -

Sometimes, due to genetic and other unknown reasons, the body attack self-cells. This results in damage to the body and is called auto-immune disease.

- wherein

Rheumatoid arthritis which affects many people in our society is an auto-immune disease.

 

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. It is the cause of 60–70% of cases of dementia. The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss). Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies are produced against the synovial membrane and cartilage. Vitiligo causes white patches on skin also characterised as autoimmune disorder. Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes itchy or sore patches of thick red skin and is also autoimmune whereas Alzheimer's disease is due to deficiency of neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

 


Option 1)

Alzheimer's disease

This is correct.

Option 2)

Rheumatoid arthritis

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

Psoriasis

This is incorrect.

Option 4)

Vitiligo

This is incorrect.

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Medical
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In which disease does mosquito transmitted pathogen cause chronic inflammation of lymphatic vessels ?

  • Option 1)

    Ringworm disease

  • Option 2)

    Ascariasis

  • Option 3)

    Elephantiasis

  • Option 4)

    Amoebiosis

 

As we learnt in

elephantiasis or filariasis -

Wuchereria (W. bancrofti and W. malayi), the filarial worms that cause elephantiasis or filariasis

- wherein

fig 2

 

Elephantiasis is caused by roundworm, Wuchereria bancrofti and it is transmitted by Culex mosquito. 

 


Option 1)

Ringworm disease

This is incorrect.

Option 2)

Ascariasis

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

Elephantiasis

This is correct.

Option 4)

Amoebiosis

This is incorrect.

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