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Medical
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Which of the following characteristics represent 'Inheritance of blood groups' in humans ?

a. Dominance

b. Co-dominance

c. Multiple allele

d. Incomplete dominance

e. Polygenic inheritance

  • Option 1)

    b , d and e

  • Option 2)

    a , b and c

  • Option 3)

    b , c and e

  • Option 4)

    a , c and e

 

2

Medical
437 Views   |  

The similarity of bone structure in the forelimbs of many vertebrates is an example of

  • Option 1)

    Convergent evolution

  • Option 2)

    Analogy

  • Option 3)

    Homology

  • Option 4)

    Adaptive radiation

 

As we learnt in

Homologous Organs -

Organs which look different and perform different functions, but have similar basic structure, similar topography and embryonic origin.

- wherein

These are called homologous organs. Eg: forelimbs of vertebrates like the seal, bat, bird wings, dragonfly, pterodactyl, eagle, humorous bat.

fig 4

 

 In homology, in different vertebrates, bones of forelimbs are similar but their forelimbs are adapted in different way as per their adaptation.

 


Option 1)

Convergent evolution

This is incorrect.

Option 2)

Analogy

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

Homology

This is correct.

Option 4)

Adaptive radiation

This is incorrect.

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Medical
130 Views   |  

Conversion of milk to curd improves its nutritional value by increasing the amount of

  • Option 1)

    Vitamin B12

  • Option 2)

    Vitamin A

  • Option 3)

    Vitamin D

  • Option 4)

    Vitamin E

 

As we learnt in

Microbes in household products – lactic acid bacteria (LAB) -

Micro-organisms such as Lactobacillus and others commonly called lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grow in milk and convert it to curd.

- wherein

During growth, the LAB produce acids that coagulate and partially digest the milk proteins. A small amount of curd added to the fresh milk as inoculum or starter contain millions of LAB, which at suitable temperatures multiply, thus converting milk to curd, which also improves its nutritional quality by increasing vitamin B12.

 

Curd has enriched presence of vitamins specially Vit-B12.

 


Option 1)

Vitamin B12

This is correct.

Option 2)

Vitamin A

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

Vitamin D

This is incorrect.

Option 4)

Vitamin E

This is incorrect.

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Medical
386 Views   |  

Among the following sets of examples for divergent evolution , select the incorrect option :

  • Option 1)

    Brain of bat , man and cheetah

  • Option 2)

    Heart of bat , man and cheetah

  • Option 3)

    Forelimbs of bat , man and cheetah

  • Option 4)

    Eye of octopus , bat and man

 

As we learnt in

Types of organic evolution -

  1. Divergent Evolution
  2. Co-Evaluation
  3. Progressive
  4. Microevolution
  5. Macroevolution
  6. Mega evolution
  7. Parallel evolution
  8. Convergent evolution

- wherein

 

 

 

Convergent or parallel evolution -

Different geographical areas exhibiting similar groups of plants and animals with strikingly similar appearance is called convergent or parallel evolution.

- wherein

These organisms may be distantly related.

 

Divergent evolution occurs in the same structure, example - forelimbs, heart, brain of vertebrates which have developed along different directions due to adaptation to different needs whereas eye of octopus, bat and man are examples of analogous organs showing convergent evolution.

 


Option 1)

Brain of bat , man and cheetah

This is incorrect.

Option 2)

Heart of bat , man and cheetah

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

Forelimbs of bat , man and cheetah

This is incorrect.

Option 4)

Eye of octopus , bat and man

This is correct.

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Medical
102 Views   |  

Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease ?

  • Option 1)

    Alzheimer's disease

  • Option 2)

    Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Option 3)

    Psoriasis

  • Option 4)

    Vitiligo

 

As we learnt in

Auto-immune disease -

Sometimes, due to genetic and other unknown reasons, the body attack self-cells. This results in damage to the body and is called auto-immune disease.

- wherein

Rheumatoid arthritis which affects many people in our society is an auto-immune disease.

 

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. It is the cause of 60–70% of cases of dementia. The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss). Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies are produced against the synovial membrane and cartilage. Vitiligo causes white patches on skin also characterised as autoimmune disorder. Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes itchy or sore patches of thick red skin and is also autoimmune whereas Alzheimer's disease is due to deficiency of neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

 


Option 1)

Alzheimer's disease

This is correct.

Option 2)

Rheumatoid arthritis

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

Psoriasis

This is incorrect.

Option 4)

Vitiligo

This is incorrect.

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Medical
241 Views   |  

In which disease does mosquito transmitted pathogen cause chronic inflammation of lymphatic vessels ?

  • Option 1)

    Ringworm disease

  • Option 2)

    Ascariasis

  • Option 3)

    Elephantiasis

  • Option 4)

    Amoebiosis

 

As we learnt in

elephantiasis or filariasis -

Wuchereria (W. bancrofti and W. malayi), the filarial worms that cause elephantiasis or filariasis

- wherein

fig 2

 

Elephantiasis is caused by roundworm, Wuchereria bancrofti and it is transmitted by Culex mosquito. 

 


Option 1)

Ringworm disease

This is incorrect.

Option 2)

Ascariasis

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

Elephantiasis

This is correct.

Option 4)

Amoebiosis

This is incorrect.

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Medical
145 Views   |  

Many ribosomes may associate with a single mRNA to form multiple copies of a polypeptide simultaneously . Such strings of ribosomes are termed as

  • Option 1)

    Plastidome

  • Option 2)

    Polyhedral bodies

  • Option 3)

    Polysome

  • Option 4)

    Nucleosome

 
As we learnt in Ribosomes - It is a complex made up of RNA and protein and is the site for protein synthesis. - wherein Several ribosomes may attach to a single mRNA and form chains called polyribosomes or polysome.   The phenomenon of association of many ribosomes with single m-RNA leads to formation of polyribosomes or polysomes or ergasomes.   Option 1) Plastidome This is incorrect....
Medical
340 Views   |  

Which of the following events does not occur in rough endoplasmic reticulum ?

  • Option 1)

    Cleavage of signal peptide

  • Option 2)

    Protein glycosilation

  • Option 3)

    Protein folding

  • Option 4)

    Phospholipid synthesis

 

As we learnt in

RER and SER -

The endoplasmic reticulum bearing ribosomes on their surface is called rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), in the absence of ribosomes, they appear smooth and are called smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER).

 

- wherein

 

Phospholipid synthesis does not take place in RER. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum are involved in lipid synthesis.

 


Option 1)

Cleavage of signal peptide

This is incorrect.

Option 2)

Protein glycosilation

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

Protein folding

This is incorrect.

Option 4)

Phospholipid synthesis

This is correct.

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Medical
208 Views   |  

Which of the following terms describe human dentition ?

  • Option 1)

    Pleurodont , Monophyodont , Homodont

  • Option 2)

    Thecodont , Diphyodont , Heterodont 

  • Option 3)

    Thecodont , Diphyodont , Homodont

  • Option 4)

    Pleurodont , Diphyodont , Heterodont

 

 b option thecodont means present in the socket of jaw and diphyodont means comes two times and heterodont means set differnt

Medical
418 Views   |  

Select the incorrect match :

  • Option 1)

    Submetacentric chromosomes - L - shaped chromosomes

  • Option 2)

    Allosomes - Sex chromosomes

  • Option 3)

    Lampbrush chromosomes - Diplotene bivalents

  • Option 4)

    Polytene chromosomes - oocytes of amphibians

 
As we learnt in Diplotene - The fourth stage of prophase I, marked by dissolution of synaptonemal complex and the tendency of the recombined homologous chromosomes of the bivalents to separate. The X-shaped structures are called chiasmata.   - wherein     Types of chromosomes - Based on the position of centromere, the chromosomes can be classified into four types: 1) Metacentric chromosome-...
Medical
98 Views   |  

Which of the following is incorrect ?

  • Option 1)

    Glycolysis operates as long as it is supplied with NAD that can pick up hydrogen atoms. 

  • Option 2)

    Glycolysis occurs in cytosol.

  • Option 3)

    enzymes of TCA cycle are present in mitochondrial matrix.

  • Option 4)

    Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in outer mitochondrial membrane.

 

As we learnt in

Oxidalive phosphorylation -

Synthesis of energy such ATP molecules with the help of energy librated during oxidation of reduced coenzymes (NADH, FADH2) produced in respiration, his is carried out in ETS and energy is generated through chemoiosmosis.

- wherein

Occours in the inner mitochondria membrane.

Oxidative phosphorylation is the process in which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH2 to O2 by a series of electron carriers. This process, which takes place in inner mitochondrial membrane, is the major source of ATP in aerobic organisms.

 


Option 1)

Glycolysis operates as long as it is supplied with NAD that can pick up hydrogen atoms. 

This is incorrect.

Option 2)

Glycolysis occurs in cytosol.

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

enzymes of TCA cycle are present in mitochondrial matrix.

This is incorrect.

Option 4)

Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in outer mitochondrial membrane.

This is correct.

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Medical
810 Views   |  

Nissl bodies are mainly composed of

  • Option 1)

    Nucleic acids and SER

  • Option 2)

    DNA and RNA

  • Option 3)

    Proteins and lipids

  • Option 4)

    Free ribosomes and RER

 

Option 4 free ribosomes and RER

Medical
100 Views   |  

Calcium is impotanat in skeletal muscle contraction because it

  • Option 1)

    detaches the myosin head from the actin filament.

  • Option 2)

    activates the myosin ATPase by binding to it.

  • Option 3)

    binds to troponin to remove the masking of active sites on actin for myosin.

  • Option 4)

    prevents the formation of bonds between the myosin cross bridges and the actin filament.

 

As we learnt in

Mechanism of Muscle Contraction -

Release of Calcium ions.

- wherein

A neural signal reaching the neuromuscular junction releases a neurotransmitter (Acetyl choline) which generates an action potential in the sarcolemma. This spreads through the muscle fibre and causes the release of calcium ions into the sarcoplasm.

Signal for contraction increase Ca++ level many folds in the sarcoplasm after which Ca++ binds with sub-unit of troponin (troponin "C") which is masking the active site on actin filament and displaces the sub-unit of troponin. Once the active site is exposed, head of the myosin attaches and initiate contraction by sliding the actin over myosin.


Option 1)

detaches the myosin head from the actin filament.

This is incorrect.

Option 2)

activates the myosin ATPase by binding to it.

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

binds to troponin to remove the masking of active sites on actin for myosin.

This is correct.

Option 4)

prevents the formation of bonds between the myosin cross bridges and the actin filament.

This is incorrect.

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Medical
225 Views   |  

Which of the following is an occupational respiratory disorder ?

  • Option 1)

    Botulism

  • Option 2)

    Silicosis

  • Option 3)

    Anthracis

  • Option 4)

    Emphysema

 

As we learnt in

DISORDERS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM -

Occupational Respiratory Disorders

- wherein

In certain industries, especially those involving grinding or stone-breaking, so much dust is produced that the defense mechanism of the body cannot fully cope with the situation. Long exposure can give rise to inflammation leading to fibrosis (proliferation of fibrous tissues) and thus causing serious lung damage.
 

Silicosis is due to excess inhalation of silica dust in the workers involved grinding or stone breaking industries.

Long exposure can give rise to inflammation leading to fibrosis and thus causing serious lung damage.

 


Option 1)

Botulism

This is incorrect.

Option 2)

Silicosis

This is correct.

Option 3)

Anthracis

This is incorrect.

Option 4)

Emphysema

This is incorrect.

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Medical
56 Views   |  

Match the items given in Column I with those in Column II and select the correct option given below : 

  Column I   Column II
a. Fibrinogen i. Osmotic balance
b. Globulin ii. Blood clotting
c. Albumin iii. Defence mechanism

 

  • Option 1)
    a b c
    i iii ii

     

  • Option 2)
    a b c
    i iii ii
  • Option 3)
    a b c
    iii ii i
  • Option 4)
    a b c
    ii iii i
 

3

Medical
920 Views   |  

Which of the following gastric cells indirectly help in erythropoiesis?

  • Option 1)

    Goblet cells

  • Option 2)

    Mucous cells

  • Option 3)

    Chief cells

  • Option 4)

    Parietal cells

 

As we learnt in

Gastric Glands -

Parietal or oxyntic cells which secrete HCl and intrinsic factor (factor essential for absorption of vitamin B12)

-

Parietal or oxyntic cell is a source of HCl and intrinsic factor. HCl converts iron present in diet from ferric to ferrous form so that it can be absorbed easily and used during erythropoiesis.

Intrinsic factor is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 and its deficiency causes pernicious anaemia.


Option 1)

Goblet cells

This is incorrect.

Option 2)

Mucous cells

This is incorrect.

Option 3)

Chief cells

This is incorrect.

Option 4)

Parietal cells

This is correct.

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Medical
97 Views   |  

Match the items given in Column I with those in Column II and select the correct option given below : 

 

Column I

(Function)

 

Column II

(Part of Excretory System)

a. Ultrafiltration i. Henle's loop
b. Concentration of urine ii. Ureter
c. Transport of urine iii. Urinary bladder
d. Storage of urine iv. Malphigian corpuscle
    v. Proximal convoluted tubule

 

  • Option 1)
    a b c d
    v iv i ii

     

  • Option 2)
    a b c d
    iv i ii iii
  • Option 3)
    a b c d
    iv v ii iii
  • Option 4)
    a b c d
    v iv i iii
 

As we learnt in

Excretory Structures among Various Groups of Animals -

Insects like cockroaches

- wherein

Malpighian tubules are the excretory structures of most of the insects including cockroaches. Malpighian tubules help in the removal of nitrogenous wastes and osmoregulation.

 

Ultrafiltration refers to filtration of very fine particles having molecular weight less than 68,000 daltons through malpighian corpuscle. Concentration of urine refers to water absorption from glomerular filtrate as a result of hyperosmolarity in the medulla created by counter-current mechanism in  Henle's loop. Urine is carried from kidney to bladder hrough ureter.

Urinary bladder is concerned with storage of urine.

 


Option 1)

a b c d
v iv i ii

 

This is incorrect.

Option 2)

a b c d
iv i ii iii

This is correct.

Option 3)

a b c d
iv v ii iii

This is incorrect.

Option 4)

a b c d
v iv i iii

This is incorrect.

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Medical
157 Views   |  

Match the items given in Column I with those in Column II and select the correct option given below : 

  Column I   Column II
a. Glycosuria i. Accumulation of uric acid in joints
b. Gout ii. Mass of crystallised salts within the kidney
c. Renal calculi iii. Inflammation in glomeruli
d. Glomerular nephritis iv. Presence of glucose in urine

 

  • Option 1)
    a b c d
    ii iii i iv

     

  • Option 2)
    a b c d
    i ii iii iv
  • Option 3)
    a b c d
    iii ii iv i
  • Option 4)
    a b c d
    iv i ii iii
 

As we learnt in

Diabetes mellitus -

Prolonged hyperglycemia leads to a complex disorder called diabetes mellitus which is associated with loss of glucose through urine and formation of harmful compounds known as ketone bodies.

- wherein

Diabetic patients are successfully treated with insulin therap

 

Glomerulonephritis -

Inflammation of glomeruli of kidney.

-

Disorders Of Muscular And Skeletal System -

Gout

- wherein

Inflammation of joints due to accumulation of uric acid crystals.

Glycosuria denotes presence of glucose in the urine. This is observed when blood glucose level rises above 180 mg/100 ml of blood, this is called renal threshold value for glucose.

Gout is due to deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint.

Renal calculi are precipitates of calcium phosphate produced in the pelvis of the kidney.

Glomerular nephritis is the inflammatory condition of glomerulus characterised by proteinuria and haematuria.

 

 


Option 1)

a b c d
ii iii i iv

 

Option 2)

a b c d
i ii iii iv

Option 3)

a b c d
iii ii iv i

Option 4)

a b c d
iv i ii iii
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Medical
70 Views   |  

Match the items given in Column I with those in Column II and select the correct option given below : 

  Column I   Column II
a. Proliferative Phase i. Breakdown of endometrial lining
b. Secretory Phase ii. Follicular Phase
c. Menstruation iii. Luteal Phase

 

  • Option 1)
    a b c
    ii iii i

     

  • Option 2)
    a b c
    i iii ii
  • Option 3)
    a b c
    iii ii i
  • Option 4)
    a b c
    iii i ii
 

Correct answer: Option 1  

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