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Medical
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Which of the following guards the opning of hepatopancreatic duct into the duodenum?

  • Option 1)

    Semilunar valve

  • Option 2)

    Ileocaecal valve

  • Option 3)

    Pyloric sphincter

  • Option 4)

    Sphincter of Oddi

 
  Hepato-pancreatic duct - The bile duct and the pancreatic duct open together into the duodenum as the common hepato-pancreatic duct - wherein It is guarded by a sphincter called the sphincter of Oddi.   Hepatopancreatic duct is guarded by sphincter of Oddi. Option 1) Semilunar valve This option is incorrect Option 2) Ileocaecal valve This option is incorrect Option 3) Pyloric sphincter This...
Medical
115 Views   |  

Reduction in pH of blood will:

  • Option 1)

    reduce the rate of heart beat.

  • Option 2)

    reduce the blood supply to the brain.

  • Option 3)

    decrease the affinity of hemoglobin with oxygen.

  • Option 4)

    release bicarbonate ions by the liver.

 
  Oxygen Dissociation Curve - A sigmoid curve is obtained when percentage saturation of haemoglobin with O2 is plotted against the . This curve is called the Oxygen dissociation curve and is highly useful in studying the effect of factors like , H+ concentration, etc., on binding of O2 with haemoglobin. - wherein    High concentration of H+ will reduce the pH, which will decrease the...
Medical
189 Views   |  

Name the chronic respiratory disorder caused mainly by cigarette smoking:

  • Option 1)

    Emphysema

  • Option 2)

    Asthma

  • Option 3)

    Respiratory acidosis

  • Option 4)

    Respiratory alkalosis

 
  DISORDERS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - Emphysema - wherein Emphysema is a chronic disorder in which alveolar walls are damaged due to which respiratory surface is decreased. One of the major causes of this is cigarette smoking.       Option 1) Emphysema This option is correct. Option 2) Asthma This option is incorrect. Option 3) Respiratory acidosis This option is incorrect. Option...
Medical
89 Views   |  

Asthma may be attributed to:

  • Option 1)

    bacterial infection of the lungs

  • Option 2)

    allergic reaction of the mast cells in the lungs

  • Option 3)

    inflammation of the trachea

  • Option 4)

    accumulation of fluid in the lungs

 
As we learnt in  DISORDERS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - Asthma - wherein Asthma is a difficulty in breathing causing wheezing due to inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles.        Asthma is one inflammation is bronchi and bronchioles due to a secretion of mast cells causes allergy. Option 1) bacterial infection of the lungs This option is incorrect Option 2) allergic reaction of the mast cells...
Medical
247 Views   |  

Photosensitive compound in human eye is made up of :

  • Option 1)

    Guanosine and Retinol

  • Option 2)

    Opsin and Retinal

  • Option 3)

    Opsin and Retinol

  • Option 4)

    Transducin and Retinene

 

OPSIN AND RETINOL

 

Medical
82 Views   |  

In the stomach, gastric acid is secreted by the :

  • Option 1)

    gastrin secreting cells

  • Option 2)

    parietal cells

  • Option 3)

    peptic cells

  • Option 4)

    acidic cells

 
As we learnt Layers of the Stomach - Mucosal epithelium - wherein Contains specialised cells that secrete chemicals necessary for digestive processes. These chemicals include gastric juice and the hormone gastrin   Gastric juice is secreted by the parietal cells.  Option 1) gastrin secreting cells incorrect Option 2) parietal cells correct Option 3) peptic cells incorrect Option 4) acidic...
Medical
123 Views   |  

Blood pressure in the pulmonary artery is:

  • Option 1)

    same as that in the aorta.

  • Option 2)

    more than that in the carotid.

  • Option 3)

    more than that in the pulmonary vein.

  • Option 4)

    less than that in the venae cavae.

 
As we learnt at concept pulmonary artery and the aorta - The openings of the right and the left ventricles into the pulmonary artery and the aorta respectively are provided with the semilunar valves. - wherein The valves in the heart allows the flow of blood only in one direction, i.e., from the atria to the ventricles and from the ventricles to the pulmonary artery or aorta. These valves...
Medical
205 Views   |  

Lack of relaxation between successive stimuli in sustained muscle contraction is known as:

  • Option 1)

    Spasm

  • Option 2)

    Fatigue

  • Option 3)

    Tetanus

  • Option 4)

    Tonus

 

Wild contraction- spasm

Slight contraction - tonus 

Sustained contraction - tetany or tetanus

Medical
276 Views   |  

Water vapour comes out from the plant leaf through the stomatal opening. Through the same stomatal opening carbon dioxide diffuses into the plant during photosynthesis. Reason out the above statements using one of following options:

  • Option 1)

    Both processes cannot happen simultaneously.

  • Option 2)

    Both processes can happen together because the diffusion coefficient of water and CO2 is different.

  • Option 3)

    The above processes happen only during night time.

  • Option 4)

    One process occurs during day time, and the other at night.

 
  Rate of diffusion - Rate ∝ Temperature Rate ∝ steepness of diffusion pressure difference Rate ∝ Rate ∝ -    Diffusion of water vapour and   can occur simultaneously due to different diffusion coefficient.     Option 1) Both processes cannot happen simultaneously. Incorrect option Option 2) Both processes can happen together because the diffusion coefficient of water and CO2 is...
Medical
675 Views   |  

Water soluble pigments found in plant cell vacuoles are:

  • Option 1)

    Xanthophylls

  • Option 2)

    Chlorophylls

  • Option 3)

    Carotenoids

  • Option 4)

    Anthocyanins

 

Anthocyanins

they even get degraded by high pH

 

Medical
435 Views   |  

Emerson's enhancement effect and Red drop have been instrumental in the discovery of:

  • Option 1)

    Photophosphorylation and non-cyclic electron transport

  • Option 2)

    Two photosystems operating simultaneously

  • Option 3)

    Photophosphorylation and cyclic electron transport

  • Option 4)

    Oxidative phosphorylation

 

2)Two photosystems operating simultaneously.

Medical
286 Views   |  

A plant in your garden avoids photorespiratory losses, has improved water use efficiency, shows high rates of photosynthesis at high temperatures and has improved efficiency of nitrogen utilisation. In which of the following physiological groups would you assign this plant?

  • Option 1)

    C3

  • Option 2)

    C4

  • Option 3)

    CAM

  • Option 4)

    Nitrogen fixer

 
As discussed in Hatch Slack pathway - Regular mode of CO2 fixation in number of tropical plants. First product is 4-carbon compound, hence, known as C4.  - wherein    In  pathway, photorespiration is negligible and rate of photosynthesis is increased at higher temperature.     Option 1) C3 Incorrect option Option 2) C4 Correct option Option 3) CAM Incorrect option Option 4) Nitrogen...
Medical
283 Views   |  

In a chloroplast the highest number of protons are found:

  • Option 1)

    Stroma

  • Option 2)

    Lumen of thylakoids

  • Option 3)

    Inter membrane space

  • Option 4)

    Antennae complex

 

lumen of thylakoids

 

Medical
190 Views   |  

Which of the following is not a stem modification?

  • Option 1)

    Pitcher of Nepenthes

  • Option 2)

    Thorns of citrus

  • Option 3)

    Tendrils of cucumber

  • Option 4)

    Flattened structures of Opuntia

 

Picher of nepenthes

Medical
545 Views   |  

Tricarpellary, syncarpous gynoecium is found in flowers of:

  • Option 1)

    Liliaceae

  • Option 2)

    Solanaceae

  • Option 3)

    Fabaceae

  • Option 4)

    Poaceae

 
As learnt Gynoecium - It is the female part of flower comprising carpels bearing ovules, It consists of ovary. style and stigma. - wherein The gynoecium may be monocarpellary or Apocarpous - Carpels are free (no cohesion) ex. Ranunculaceae Syncarpous - when two or more than two carpels are fusused -ex. most of the plants. No of locules - Ovary has locules or chambers which may be mono, bi, tri,...
Medical
704 Views   |  

The standard petal of a papilionaceous corolla is also called:

  • Option 1)

    Carina

  • Option 2)

    Pappus

  • Option 3)

    Vexillum

  • Option 4)

    Corona

 
  Types of Corolla - It can be following types Cruciform - 4 petals are arranged like a cross eg: members of Brassicaceae Papilionaceous - five petals are arranged with one largest petal called vexillum eg - Pea Rosaceous - It consists 5 or more petals, lower part (claw) are absent and outer part (limb) are spreading outwards. eg: Rose, Coconut Caryophyllaceous - Five free long clawed with...
Medical
422 Views   |  

Stems modified into flat green organs performing the functions of leaves are known as:

  • Option 1)

    Cladodes

  • Option 2)

    Phyllodes

  • Option 3)

    Phylloclades

  • Option 4)

    Scales

 
As learnt in Types of special stem modifications - Phyllacodes - Flat, fleshy, green leaf like structure which has a succession of nodes and internodes at long and short intervals. Leaves are modified into spine or scale to check transpiration. Photosynthesis takes place in phyllacodes. Ex: Opuntia, cereus, Euphorbia Cladode - Phylloclade with one internode is called cladode. Ex: Aspargus &...
Medical
335 Views   |  

Cotyledon of maize grain is called:

  • Option 1)

    plumule

  • Option 2)

    coleorhiza

  • Option 3)

    coleoptile

  • Option 4)

    scutellum

 
As discussed in Plant embryo structure - The embryo consists of a cotyledon and an embryonal axis. The cotyledon is also called scutellum in cereals. The lower end of scutellum is called coleorhiza and upper part of axis is called the plumule which is covered by coleoptile. -   Cereal cotyledon are called scutellum.   Option 1) plumule This solution is incorrect. Option 2) coleorhiza This...
Medical
181 Views   |  

Which type of tissue correctly matches with its location?

Tissue Location

 

  • Option 1)

    Smooth muscle

    Wall of intestine

     

  • Option 2)
    Areolar tissue Tendons

     

  • Option 3)
    Transitional epithelium Tip of nose

     

  • Option 4)
    Cuboidal epithelium Lining of stomach

     

 
As discussed in Types of smooth muscles - In single unit smooth muscle; all the muscle fibres are connected together and acts as a unit. E.g. walls of hollow visceral organs (stomach, Intestine, urinary bladder. Multi unit muscle fibres, do not act together, remain separated. E.g. hair roots, wall of large blood vessels.  -    Smooth muscle - wall of intestine. Option 1) Smooth...
Medical
226 Views   |  

Which one of the following statements is not true?

  • Option 1)

    Tapetum helps in the dehiscence of anther

  • Option 2)

    Exine of pollen grains is made up of sporopollenin

  • Option 3)

    Pollen grains of many species cause severe allergies

  • Option 4)

    Stored pollen in liquid nitrogen can be used in the crop breeding programmes

 
  Function of wall layers in a typical microsporangium - The outer three wall layers perform the function of protection and help in dehiscence of anther to release the pollen. The innermost wall layer is the tapetum. It nourishes the developing pollen grains. Cells of the tapetum possess dense cytoplasm and generally have more than one nucleus. -    Tapetum provides nourishment to the...
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