NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds: When you are studying in class 10, knowing the concepts and basics of each chapter is very important. Class 10th board exam score plays a major role in your career direction. As we all know, in every school there are separate admission criteria for science, commerce, and arts stream. So, if you want to take admission in your preferable stream, then you have to score well and for better marks, you need to clear your concepts. Through CBSE NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds, you will get to know the following things about the carbon and its related compound and it will help you to clear your concepts to related to this chapter. The NCERT solutions are here to help you to understand the concepts and their questions. Solutions for NCERT class 10 science chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds will help you to understand all the below-mentioned topics solutions.
Here are the important topics of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds mentioned below:
4.1 Bonding in Carbon - The Covalent Bond
4.2 Versatile Nature of Carbon
4.2.1 Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds
4.2.2 Chains, Branches, and Rings
4.2.4 Homologous Series
4.2.5 Nomenclature of Carbon Compound
4.3 Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds
4.3.4 Addition Reaction
4.3.5 Substitution Reaction
4.4 Some Important Carbon Compounds - Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid
4.4.1 Properties of Ethanol
4.4.2 Properties of Ethanoic Acid
4.5 Soaps and Detergents
NCERT textbook solutions for class 10 science chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds - Points to remember
Carbon is a versatile element that forms the large variety of compounds because of carbon tetravalency and the property of catenation that it exhibits.
The basis for all living organisms and many of the things we use are formed by carbon.
Covalent bonds are formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms in order that both are able to do a totally filled outermost shell.
- Carbon forms covalent bonds with itself and other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine.
- Carbon also forms compounds containing double and triple bonds between carbon atoms. These carbon chains could also be in the form of straight chains, branched chains or rings.
- The ability of carbon to form chains gives rise to a homologous series of compounds during which an equivalent functional group is attached to carbon chains of various lengths.
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NCERT textbook solutions for class 10 science chapter 4 carbon and its compounds
Topic 4.2: Versatile nature of carbon
Q.1. How many structural isomers can you draw for pentane?
There are three structural isomers of pentane:
Q. 2. What are the two properties of carbon which lead to the huge number of carbon compounds we see around us?
The two properties of carbon which lead to the formation of a large number of carbon compounds are:
(1) Catenation: Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other atoms of carbon which gives rise to large molecules. The carbon-carbon bond is very strong and hence stable.
(2) Tetravalency: Since carbon has a valency of four, it is capable of bonding with four other atoms. These bonds that carbon forms with other elements are very strong making these compounds exceptionally stable.
Q. 5. (i) How would you name the following compound?
The compound ( ) has 2 carbon atoms. Hence the parent hydrocarbon is ethane.
A bromo group is attached to one of the carbon atoms. Thus, the nomenclature of the compound is Bromoethane.
Q. 5. (ii) How would you name the following compounds?
The compound () contains 1 carbon atom. Hence the parent hydrocarbon is methane. It contains the functional group aldehyde.
Thus, the nomenclature of the compound is: Methanal.
Q.5. (III) How would you name the following compound?
The compound has 6 carbons in the chain. Hence the parent hydrocarbon is hexane. It contains a triple bond and hence the suffix -yne- is used. Thus, the nomenclature of the compound is: Hexyne
NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds
Topic 4.4: Some Important Carbon Compounds - Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid
Q. 1. How would you distinguish experimentally between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid?
We can distinguish between alcohol and carboxylic acid by reacting them with carbonates/hydrogen carbonates. The acid reacts with hydrogen carbonate to liberate carbon dioxide which turns lime water milky.
Whereas alcohol shows no evolution of gas when reacted with carbonates.
Q.2. What are oxidizing agents?
The oxidation reaction is the reaction in which oxygen is added or hydrogen is removed.
The substance which adds oxygen to others is known as oxidizing agents.
Example: AlkalinepPotassium permanganate
Solutions for NCERT class 10 science chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds
Topic 4.5: Soaps and Detergents
Q.1. Would you be able to check if the water is hard by using a detergent?
No, we will not be able to check if the water is hard sing detergents. This is because detergents give rich lather with both hard and soft water without forming any scum.
Q. 4. Explain the nature of the covalent bond using the bond formation in.
Carbon has four electrons in its outermost shell and needs to gain or lose four electrons to attain noble gas configuration. Carbon overcomes this problem by sharing its valence electrons with other atoms of carbon or with atoms of other elements.
Of the four electrons, three are shared with hydrogen atoms and one with a chlorine atom. Thus it has three (C-H) and one (C-Cl) covalent bonds.
These bonds formed by the sharing of electrons are known as covalent bonds. Carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine attains the nearest noble gas configuration of Ne, He and Ar respectively.
Q. 6. What is a homologous series? Explain with an example.
A series of carbon compounds having different numbers of carbon atoms but have the same functional group substituting the hydrogen atom is known as a homologous series.
For example, methane, ethane, propane, butane, etc. constitute the alkane homologous series. The general formula for alkanes is . Methane ; Ethane ; Propane and so on.
Q. 8. Why does micelle formation take place when soap is added to water? Will a micelle be formed in other solvents such as ethanol also?
A soap is a sodium or potassium salt of long-chain fatty acids. It has one polar hydrophilic end and one non-polar hydrophobic end. These molecules have a unique orientation inside water in form of clusters of molecule in which hydrophobic ends are in the interior of the cluster and ionic ends on the surface of cluster thus keeping the hydrocarbon portion out of water. This formation is known as Micelle. Soap in the form of a micelle is able to clean, as the oily dirt is collected in the centre of the micelle.
No, micelle formation does not take place in ethanol because the alkyl chain of soap becomes soluble in alcohol.
Q. 9. Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications?
Carbon compounds have high calorific values. Therefore, carbon and its compounds are used as fuels for most applications. They give a lot of heat and light when burnt in air. Saturated hydrocarbons like methane burn with a clean flame without any smoke and are thus environmentally friendly.
Q. 12. What is hydrogenation? What is its industrial application?
The conversion of unsaturated hydrocarbon to saturated hydrocarbon by the addition of hydrogen in the presence of nickel catalyst is called hydrogenation. This reaction is commonly used in hydrogenation of vegetable oil into vegetable ghee.
Q. 15. Explain the mechanism of the cleaning action of soaps.
A soap is a sodium or potassium salt of long-chain fatty acids. It has one polar hydrophilic end and one non-polar hydrophobic end. When soap is at the surface of the water, the hydrophobic tail of soap being nonsoluble in water protrudes out of the water with the ionic end in water.
When there is no more space for soap molecules on the surface, these molecules create a unique orientation inside water in form of clusters in which hydrophobic ends are in the interior of the cluster and ionic ends on the surface of cluster thus keeping the hydrocarbon portion out of water. This formation is known as Micelle.
Soap in the form of a micelle is able to clean, as the oily dirt is collected in the centre of the micelle.The ionic ends in the micelles remain attached to water. When the dirty clothes are agitated in a soap solution, the oily dirt particles entrapped by soap micelles get dispersed in water and the clothes get cleaned.
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