NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 10 cell cycle and cell division: Are you aware of this fact, that all organisms, even the largest or the smallest, start their life from a single cell? You may wonder how from a single cell they form such large organisms. Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 10 cell cycle and cell division contain solutions which comprise of an excellent explanation of all the questions which are based on cell division and the different cycles of the cell. You will learn that growth and reproduction are characteristics of cells, indeed of all living organisms. NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 10 cell cycle and cell division will provide you all the answers to those questions which are mentioned in this chapter. You will be surprised by knowing that all the cells reproduce by dividing into two, with each parental cell giving rise to two daughter cells each time they divide and these newly formed daughter cells can themselves grow and divide, giving rise to a new cell population that is formed by the growth and division of a single parental cell and its progeny. If you are looking for an answer from any other chapter even from any other class then go with NCERT Solutions, there you will get all the answers of NCERT easily.
Here are the important topics of CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 10 cell cycle and cell division given below:
10.1 Cell Cycle
- 10.1.1 Phases of Cell Cycle
10.2 M Phase
- 10.2.1 Prophase
- 10.2.2 Metaphase
- 10.2.3 Anaphase
- 10.2.4 Telophase
- 10.2.5 Cytokinesis
10.3 Significance of Mitosis
- 10.4.1 Meiosis I
- 10.4.2 Meiosis II
10.5 Significance of Meiosis
Cell division is a very important process in all living organisms and during the division, DNA replication, as well as cell growth also takes place. All these processes, i.e., cell division, DNA replication, and cell growth, have to take place in a coordinated way to ensure correct division and formation of progeny cells containing intact genomes and in the solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 10 cell cycle and cell division you will get all the answers related to this topic only.
The cell cycle is divided into two basic phases:
- M Phase (Mitosis phase)
The interphase is divided into three further phases:
- G 1 phase (Gap 1)
- S phase (Synthesis)
- G 2 phase (Gap 2)
After going through CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 10 cell cycle and cell division, you must be able to understand the answer of the following questions which are given below:
NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 10 cell cycle and cell division- Solved Exercise Questions
Q2. Distinguish cytokinesis from karyokinesis.
The differences between cytokinesis and karyokinesis are as follows:
|The process of division of cytoplasm is called cytokinesis
||The process of division of the nucleus is called karyokinesis
|Cytokinesis takes place after the end of M-phase
||Karyokinesis take place during the M-phase
Q3. Describe the events taking place during interphase.
Interphase refers to the phase in the cell cycle which prepares the cell and its nucleus for the division. Interphase is divided into three sub-phases like
1. G1 phase- It is the longest stage of interphase, also called the first growth phase or post-mitotic gap phase. Both the cell and its nucleus grow in size. There is the synthesis of RNA, proteins, nucleotides, amino acids for histones and energy-rich compounds. There is a checkpoint called G1 cyclin or CG1, where the decision about the entry in the G0 stage is taken. If the decision is made cell cycle goes on uninterrupted or the cell undergoes the G0 stage. It refers to the resting phase in which the cell is arrested and not allowed to divide.
2. S Phase- In this phase, chromosomes along with their DNA replicates. The content of DNA doubles up, however, the number of chromosomes remains the same. After replication, the daughter chromosomes remain attached in the region of the centromere. The centrosome, if present begins to divide.
3. G2 phase- This phase is characterised by increased synthesis of RNA and proteins. The cell organelles undergo multiplication in this phase while the cell grows in size. G2 phase is also called as second growth phase or pre-mitotic gap phase.
NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 10 cell cycle and cell division:
Q4. What is Go (quiescent phase) of cell cycle?
Go (quiescent phase)- It refers to the stage of inactivation of cell cycle due to the absence of mitogens and energy-rich compounds. The cells of this stage are metabolically active and they act as reserve cells i.e. they undergo growth and differentiation for a specific function. E.g Cells in the quiescent centre of the root tip.
Q5. Why is mitosis called equational division?
Mitosis is called equational division because, at the end of mitosis, the numbers of chromosomes remain same in parental cells and daughter cells. Similarly, the ploidy of the parental and daughter cells also remain the same in mitosis.
The process of cytokinesis differs in plant and animal cells
|Cytokinesis in plants
||Cytokinesis in animals
It occurs by cell plate method
|It takes place by cleavage method
|The spindle persists during cytokinesis
||Spindle starts to degenerate after anaphase
|Cell plate grows centrifugally
||Cleavage takes place centripetally
|The new cell membrane is derived from vesicles of Golgi apparatus
||The new cell wall is derived from the endoplasmic reticulum
Q10. Distinguish anaphase of mitosis from anaphase I of meiosis.
|Anaphase of mitosis
||Anaphase I of meiosis
Anaphase of mitosis involves splitting of each chromosome at centromere into two sister chromatids which start moving towards the opposite poles.
Anaphase I of meiosis I involve the separation of homologous chromosomes, while the chromatids remain attached at their chromatids.
Q11. List the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.
|It takes place in somatic cells
||It takes place in germ cells
|The cells undergoing mitosis can be diploid or haploid
||The cells that undergo meiosis cannot be haploid
|It involves a single division producing two daughter cells at the end
||It involves two divisions that give rise to four daughter cells
|The daughter cells formed after mitosis are exactly similar to their parent cell
||The daughter cells formed after meiosis are neither similar to the parent one nor to one another
|The number of chromosome remains the same after meiosis
||The number of chromosomes is reduced to half after meiosis.
|Mitosis helps in multiplication of cells, healing and repair
||Meiosis is involved in the formation of meiospores or gametes
Q12. What is the significance of meiosis?
The process of meiosis is essential for all sexually reproducing organisms. It occurs in reproductive cells to form gametes that have half the number of chromosomes of the reproductive cells. The two gametes from reproductive cells fuse with each other to form a zygote. As a result, the zygote comes to have a double number of chromosomes. Thus, meiosis maintains the chromosome number of organisms. apart from this, there are other significances of meiosis also. Some of these are as follows
1. Meiosis form gametes that are required for sexual reproduction
2. Meiosis maintains the fixed number of chromosomes in sexually reproducing organisms by having the same during gametogenesis
3. In meiosis, paternal and maternal chromosomes assort independently. It causes a reshuffling of chromosomes and the traits controlled by them. The variations help the breeders in improving the races of useful plants and animals.
4. Meiosis introduces a new combination of traits or variations.
5. Chromosomal and genomic mutations occur by irregularities of meiotic division. Some of these mutations are useful to the organism.
Q14. Can there be mitosis without DNA replication in 'S' phase?
Without DNA replication in 'S' phase, mitosis cannot occur. During DNA replication, DNA duplicates and this is a very important step. If DNA duplication does not occur than even in mitosis, there will be a reduction in the number of chromosomes of daughter cells. Thus, mitosis cannot occur without DNA replication.
Q15. Can there be DNA replication without cell division?
Yes, DNA replication can occur without being followed by cell division. For example, polyteny is a condition in which chromosomes repeatedly replicates but the cells do not divide and as a result of this, DNA accumulates in the cell.
If you have any query in understanding these solutions which are mentioned in the above, then again go through the chapter of the NCERT textbook. And then, try to solve them by yourself and compare them with NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 10 cell cycle and cell division. This will help you not only for your school exam as it will also help you in the preparation of other competitive exams like NEET.
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