NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition: This chapter mainly focuses on inorganic plant nutrition, wherein you will study different methods to identify elements essential to growth and development of plants and the criteria for establishing the essentiality. Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition contains solutions which comprise of an explanation of all the questions which are based on the micronutrients, macronutrients and mineral nutrients. The chapter introduces you briefly to the significance and the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation. Plants obtain their inorganic nutrients from the air, water, and soil. In CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition, you will also get solutions based on essential elements and non-essential elements. Inside the chapter, you will learn that more than 105 elements are discovered and less than 21 are essential and beneficial for normal plant growth and development. If you are looking for an answer from any other chapter even from any other class then go with NCERT Solutions, there you will get all the answers of NCERT easily.
Here are the important topics of CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition given below:
12.1 Methods to Study the Mineral Requirements of Plants
12.2.1 Criteria for Essentiality
12.2.2 Role of Macro- and Micro-nutrients
12.2.3 Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements
12.2.4 Toxicity of Micronutrients
12.2 Essential Mineral Elements
12.3 Mechanism of Absorption of Elements
12.4 Translocation of Solutes
12.5 Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements
12.6 Metabolism of Nitrogen
12.6.1 Nitrogen Cycle
12.6.2 Biological Nitrogen Fixation
In Chapter 12 - Mineral Nutrition, you will study that nitrogen is very essential for the sustenance of life. But some of the plants in association with N_2 -fixing bacteria, especially roots of legumes and can fix this atmospheric nitrogen into biologically usable forms. There is an enzyme, that is called nitrogenase which plays an important role in biological N_2 fixation is very sensitive to oxygen. These are the imporatant topics and you will get related questions in NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition.
After going through CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition, you must be able to understand all the answer of those questions which are given below:
NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition:
Q1. 'All elements that are present in a plant need not be essential to its survival'. Comment
A plant tends to accumulate a variety of mineral elements. Out of these elements, not all of them are essential for the survival of plants. For example, the plants which grow near radioactive sites, accumulate radioactive elements, which are not essential for survival. Similarly, some plants can accumulate elements like gold, selenium etc. which are also not essential for the survival of the plant. Hence, the importance of any element to the survival of plant is dependent on its role in the physiology and metabolism of the plant. If an element does not have an important role to play in plant physiology, then it is not essential for survival, and if it has a role in plant physiology then it is essential for the survival. Thus, all elements that are present in a plant need not be essential to its survival.
Q2. Why is purification of water and nutrient salts so important in studies involving mineral nutrition using hydroponics?
The technique of growing plants in soil-less conditions in solution cultures is called hydroponics. Hydroponic studies are used to identify the functions and roles of different mineral elements in the physiology of plants. While such studies, it is important to purify water and nutrient salts because if there are impurities in water and nutrient salts the exact physiological role and deficiency symptoms of elements could not be identified. Therefore, in studies involving mineral nutrition using hydroponics, purification of water and nutrient salts is essential so as to maintain an optimum growth of the plants.
Q3. Explain with examples:
Macronutrients- These are the nutrients required by plants in large amounts. Macronutrients are mostly present in plant tissues in amounts more than 10 m moles/kg Of dry matter. Examples of macronutrients include hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Micronutrients- These are also called trace elements and are present in plant bodies in very small amounts, i.e., amounts less than 10 m moles/kg of dry matter. Examples of micronutrients include cobalt, manganese, Zinc, etc.
Q3. Explain with examples:
(iii) beneficial nutrients,
Beneficial nutrients: These are plant nutrients which are not essential, but are beneficial to the plants. NUtrients like sodium, silicon, cobalt and selenium are beneficial to higher plants.
Q3. Explain with examples:
Toxic elements: These are micronutrients that are required by plants in extremely small quantities. An excess of these nutrients may induce toxicity in plants. For example, if manganese is present in large amounts, it can induce deficiencies of iron, magnesium, and calcium by interfering with their metabolism.
Q3. Explain with examples:
Essential elements- The essential elements are absolutely necessary' for the growth and reproduction of the plants. The requirement Of these elements is specific and non-replaceable. Essential elements are further classified as macronutrients and micronutrients on the basis of size.
Q4. Name at least five different deficiency symptoms in plants. Describe them and correlate them with the concerned mineral deficiency.
Deficiency symptoms- In the absence of any particular element, the plant shows certain morphological changes. These morphological changes are called deficiency symptoms. Five different deficiency symptoms in plants are as follows:
1. Chlorosis- It refers to the loss of chlorophyll causing yellowing of the leaves. This symptom is visible during the deficiency of N, K, Mg, S, Fe, MN, Zn, Mo etc.
2. Necrosis- The term necrosis signifies the death of tissues. Necrosis is seen during the deficiency of Ca, Mg, Cu, K etc.
3. Exanthema- It refers to splitting if skin and exudation of gummy matter. Exanthema is seen due to the deficiency of Cu.
4. Delayed flowering- The flowering is delayed due to the deficiencies of lnitrogen, sulphur, and molybdenum.
5. Stunted plant growth- This deficiency symptom caused a decrease in the growth of the stem. Stunted plant growth is a result of the deficiencies of copper and sulphur.
Q5. If a plant shows a symptom which could develop due to deficiency of more than one nutrient, how would you find out experimentally, the real deficient mineral element?
In plants, the deficiency of a nutrient can cause multiple symptoms. Similarly, deficiency of one nutrient may cause the same symptom as that caused by the deficiency of some other nutrients. For example, the deficiency of nitrogen can cause chlorosis as well as delayed flowering. Similarly, necrosis can be caused by the deficiency of several nutrients like calcium, magnesium, copper, potassium etc. If a plant shows a symptom which could develop due to deficiency of more than one nutrient then to find out experimentally, the real deficient mineral element, we have to first prepare the dilute solutions of all the possible deficient nutrients. A number of plants will be grown in small pots using the nutrient deficient soil. Dilute solutions of different nutrients will be added in different pots. In one set the growth of plants will become normal. The nutrient supplied to these plants had been deficient.
Q6. Why is that in certain plants deficiency symptoms appear first in younger parts of the plant while in others they do so in mature organs?
Deficiency symptom refers to the morphological changes in plants that indicate a deficiency of the particular nutrient. The occurrence of deficiency symptoms in plant parts depends on the mobility of the deficient element in the plant. For example, elements such as nitrogen, potassium, and magnesium are highly mobile. These elements can move from the mature organs to the younger parts of a plant. Therefore, the symptoms for the deficiencies of these elements first appear in the older parts of the plant. Similarly, elements like calcium and sulphur are relatively immobile and are not transported out of the older parts of a plant. Therefore, the symptoms for the deficiencies of these elements first appear in the younger parts of the plant. Hence, certain plant deficiency symptoms appear first in younger parts of the plant while in others they do so in mature organs.
Q7. How are the minerals absorbed by the plants?
Process of mineral absorption by plants
Minerals are absorbed by cells of the root apex, zone of elongation and root hairs. The minerals absorbed by root hair zone are meant for passage to shoot while the ones absorbed by root apex and zone of elongation remain in the root. The process of mineral absorption is an active process. It occurs in two phases i.e. initial phase and metabolic phase. The initial phase is a passive process wherein ions absorbed from the outside pass in outer or free space of the cells. It comprises intercellular spaces and cell walls i.e. apoplast. The metabolic phase is an active process wherein ions enter the cytoplasm and cell vacuoles i.e symplast. The movement of ion is called flux. The inward movement is called influx and outward movement is called efflux.
CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition
Q8. What are the conditions necessary for fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by Rhizobium? What is their role in
The conditions necessary for fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by Rhizobium and their roles in nitrogen fixation are as follows:
1. Reducing environment- A reducing environment is necessary for the action of enzyme nitrogenase which is sensitive to free oxygen.
2. Presence of nitrogenase enzyme- a Mo-Fe protein — that helps in the conversion of atmospheric free nitrogen into ammonia.
3. Presence of leghaemoglobin- The root nodules containing Rhizobium contains leg-haemoglobin, which protects nitrogenase from oxygen.
4. Source of energy as ATP- Nitrogen fixation is energy requiring process thus ATP is required.
5. Source of reducing power NAD(P), H2 or FMNH2-
6. Ferredoxin as the electron donor- Ferredoxin makes nitrogen reactive.
7. Magnesium ions as cofactors- Magnesium act as a cofactor and helps in the activity of nitrogenase.
Formation of root nodules- The process of nodule formation involves a sequence of interaction between root and Rhizobium which occurs in the following manner-
The Rhizobia present around the roots multiply and increase in number. These Rhizobia attach themselves with the epidermis of the roots. The root hairs curls and bacteria invade it. An infection thread is formed that carries the bacteria into the cortex of root. Nodule formation starts in the cortex of root. Then, the bacteria are released from thread to cells which leads to the formation of specialized nitrogen-fixing cells. The nitrogen-fixing cells by repeated divisions increase in number and form nodules. The nodules establish a direct vascular connection with the host for the exchange of nutrients. These nodules contain all necessary biochemical components like enzyme nitrogenase and leg-haemoglobin. Due to the presence of leghaemoglobin, nodules are pinkish in colour.
Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition will also help you in the preparation of other competitive exams like NEET along with your school exams.
NCERT Solutions for class 11 Biology
NCERT Solutions for Class 11- Subject wise
What are the benefits of NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition:
- NCERT is the base of your learning.
- CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.
- You will get all the answers to this chapter and it will help you to score good marks in the exam.
- NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 12 mineral nutrition will also help you in your 12th board exam.
- It will also boost your knowledge.