NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development

 

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development: Have you ever thought that from where and how the structures like leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems, and roots arise and that too in an orderly sequence? So in this chapter, you are going to get questions related to the growth and development of the plant and for solutions of these questions, go through the CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development. You must be aware of the terms like seedling, plantlet, mature plant and have also seen that trees continue to increase in height or girth over a period of time. NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development will provide you the detailed answers of every questions such as; Why does the vegetative phase precede flowering in a plant? All plant organs are made up of a variety of tissues; is there any relationship between the structure of a cell, a tissue, an organ and the function they perform? And, If you are looking for an answer from any other chapter even from any other class then go with NCERT Solutions, there you will get all the answers.

Here are the important topics of the solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development mentioned below:

15.1 Growth

15.1.1 Plant Growth Generally is Indeterminate

15.1.2 Growth is Measurable

15.1.3 Phases of Growth

15.1.4 Growth Rates

15.1.5 Conditions for Growth

15.2 Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation

15.3 Development 

15.4 Plant Growth Regulators

15.4.1 Characteristics

15.4.2 The Discovery of Plant Growth Regulators

15.4.3 Physiological Effects of Plant Growth Regulators

15.4.3.1 Auxins

15.4.3.2 Gibberellins

15.4.3.3 Cytokinins

15.4.3.4 Ethylene

15.4.3.5 Abscisic acid

15.5 Photoperiodism

15.6 Vernalisation

You will study that growth is one of the most conspicuous events in any living organism. You will learn that growth is an irreversible increase expressed in parameters such as area, length, height, size, volume, cell number, etc. In plants, meristems are the sites of growth. After going through the solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development, you must be able to understand all the answer the following questions:

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development- Solved Exercise Questions-

Q1. Differentiate between

(a) Respiration and Combustion
Answer:

Respiration Combustion
 It takes place inside the living cells

It is a non-cellular process

It is a biochemical process It is a physiochemical process
Energy is released in steps as chemical bonds are broken in steps Energy is released in a single step as all chemical reactions take place simultaneously
Most of the energy is in the form of ATP ATP formation does not occur
It requires enzymes It is  non-enzymatic process

Q1. Differentiate between

(b) Glycolysis and Krebs' cycle

Answer:

Glycolysis Krebs cycle
Glycolysis takes place inside the cytoplasm It occurs inside mitochondria 
It is a straight or linear pathway It is a cyclic process
This process is common to both aerobic and anaerobic respiration This process occurs only in aerobic respiration
It breaks down one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate It breaks down pyruvate completely into carbon dioxide and water
It consumes two ATP molecules It does not consume ATP

Q1. Differentiate between

(c) Aerobic respiration and Fermentation

Answer:

Aerobic respiration Fermentation
It is an intracellular process                                         Fermentation can occur both intracellularly and extracellularly
It is not economically exploited It is economically exploited in the production of wine, bread etc.
It is a type of respiration that utilises oxygen to breakdown a respiratory substrate.  It is an enzyme controlled breakdown and transformation of organic nutrients

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development:

Q2. What are respiratory substrates? Name the most common respiratory substrate.

Answer:

Respiratory substrates are those organic substances which are oxidised during respiration to liberate energy inside the living cells. The common respiratory substrates are carbohydrates, proteins, fats and organic acids. 

Q3. Give the schematic representation of glycolysis?

Answer:

Schematic representation of glycolysis is as follows: 

Q4. What are the main steps in aerobic respiration? Where does it take place?

Answer:

The main steps of aerobic respiration are as follows: 

1. Glycolysis- Cytoplasm

2. Krebs cycle- Matrix of mitochondria

3. Electron transport system- Inner mitochondrial membrane

4. Oxidative phosphorylation- Oxysome in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Q5. Give the schematic representation of an overall view of Krebs' cycle.

Answer:

Schematic representation of the Krebs cycle

 

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development:

Q7. Distinguish between the following:

(a) Aerobic respiration and Anaerobic respiration

Answer:

Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration  
It involves the exchange of gases Exchange of gases is absent
It uses oxygen for breaking the respiratory material into simple substances It does not use oxygen for the breakdown of respiratory substrates. 
Respiratory material is completely broken  Respiratory material is partially broken 
It involves electron transport Electron transport is absent

Q7. Distinguish between the following:

(b) Glycolysis and Fermentation

Answer:

Glycolysis   Fermentation
 It is the first step of respiration which occurs without the requirement of oxygen and is common to both aerobic and anaerobic modes of respiration It is anaerobic respiration or respiration which does not require oxygen                                                                                                   
Glycolysis produces pyruvic acid Fermentation produces different products such as ethanol and lactic acid. 
IT produces two molecules of NADH per glucose molecule It uses NADH  produced during glycolysis. 

Q7. Distinguish between the following:

(c) Glycolysis and Citric acid Cycle

Answer:

Glycolysis        Citric acid cycle
It takes place inside the cytoplasm It takes place in mitochondria
It is the first step of respiration in which glucose is broken down to the level of pyruvate.  It is the second step of respiration wherein an active acetyl group is broken down completely

Q8. What are the assumptions made during the calculation of net gain of ATP?

Answer:

The assumptions made during the calculation of net gain of ATP are as follows: 

1. It is assumed that various parts of aerobic respiration such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, and ETS occur in a sequential and orderly pathway.

2.  NADH produced during the process of glycolysis enters into mitochondria to undergo oxidative phosphorylation.

3. The glucose molecule is assumed to be the only substrate while it is assumed that no other molecule enters the pathway at intermediate stages.

4. The intermediates produced during respiration are not utilized in any other process.

Q9. Discuss "The respiratory pathway is an amphibolic pathway"

Answer:

The respiratory pathway is an amphibolic pathway

An amphibolic pathway refers to a pathway in which both catabolic and anabolic reactions take place. The products of some reactions are used to synthesise other products. Carbohydrates are broken down to glucose before entering respiratory pathways. Fats get converted into fatty acids and glycerol whereas fatty acids get converted into acetyl CoA before entering the respiration. In a similar manner, proteins are converted into amino acids, which enter respiration after deamination. During the synthesis of fatty acids, acetyl CoA is withdrawn from the respiratory pathway. Also, in the synthesis of proteins, respiratory substrates get withdrawn. Thus, respiration involves both anabolism and catabolism in anabolism. Therefore, respiration can be termed as an amphibolic pathway as it involves both anabolism and catabolism.

Q10. Define RQ. What is its value for fats?

Answer:

The respiratory quotient is defined as the ratio of the volume of  CO_{2} evolved to the volume of O_{2} consumed during respiration. The value of respiratory quotient depends on the type of respiratory substrate. The value of RQ for various respiratory substrates is as follows:

Carbohydrates- 1

Fat - 0.7

Organic acids- more than 1

Proteins - less than 1

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development

Q11. What is oxidative phosphorylation?

Answer:

Oxidative phosphorylation 

Oxidative phosphorylation is the synthesis of energy-rich ATP  molecules with the help of energy liberated during oxidation of reduced coenzymes ( NADH and FADH2 ) produced in respiration. TH enzyme required for the synthesis is called ATP synthase. It is the fifth complex of ETS. During this process, a number of oxidation-reduction reactions occur and lead to the generation of a proton gradient. The enzyme ATP synthase (complex V) consists of F_{0} and F_{1}components. The Fl headpiece is a peripheral membrane protein complex and contains the site for ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate whereas F_{0} component is a part of the membrane protein complex, which acts as a channel for the crossing of the protons from the inner mitochondrial membrane to the mitochondrial matrix. For every two protons passing through F_{0}-F_{1}complex, synthesis of one ATP molecule takes place.

Q12. What is the significance of step-wise release of energy in respiration?

Answer:

The process of respiration takes place in a stepwise manner including steps like glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETS, and oxidative phosphorylation. During respiration, the production of ATP also in each phase takes place in a stepwise manner. The products formed in one step of respiration becomes the substrate of the other pathway. Various molecules produced during respiration are involved in other biochemical processes also. Different respiratory substrates enter and withdraw from the pathway on necessity. The ATP also gets utilized wherever required and the rate of reactions of enzymes are also controlled. Therefore, the stepwise release of energy makes the system more efficient in extracting as well as storing energy.

If you have any query in understanding these solutions which are mentioned in the above then again go through the chapter of the NCERT textbook, then try to solve them by yourself and compare them with NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development. As this will help you not only for your school exam as it will also help you in the preparation of other competitive exams like NEET.

NCERT Solutions for class 11 Biology

Chapter 1

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 1 the living world

Chapter 2

Solutions of NCERT for class 11 biology chapter 2 biological classification

Chapter 3

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom

Chapter 4

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 4 animal kingdom

Chapter 5

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants

Chapter 6

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 6 anatomy of flowering plants

Chapter 7

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals

Chapter 8

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 Cell: The Unit of Life

Chapter 9

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules

Chapter 10

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Chapter 11

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants

Chapter 12

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Chapter 13

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Chapter 14

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants

Chapter 15

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development

Chapter 16

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption

Chapter 17

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Chapter 18

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation

Chapter 19

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination

Chapter 20

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 20 locomotion and movement

Chapter 21

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 21 neural control and coordination

Chapter 22

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration

NCERT Solutions for Class 11- Subject wise

NCERT solutions for Class 11 Maths

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Chemistry

CBSE NCERT solutions for Class 11 Physics

What are the benefits of CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development:

  • You will get all the answers to this chapter and it will help you to score good marks in the exam.
  • NCERT is the base of your learning.
  • NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.
  • It will also boost your knowledge.
  • Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 15 plant growth and development will also help you in your school exam.
 

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