NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination: In this chapter of the Human Physiology unit, you will learn the mechanisms of elimination of these substances with special emphasis on common nitrogenous wastes. You will learn that ammonia along with urea and uric acid are the major forms of nitrogenous wastes excreted by the animals. CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination carry an impressive explanation of all the questions which are based on the excretory products and how they got eliminated from the body. And to understand that you need to learn that ammonia is the most toxic form and requires a large amount of water for its elimination, whereas uric acid, being the least toxic, can be removed with a minimum loss of water. This process of excreting ammonia form the body is called ammonotelism. It is very interesting to know that many bony fishes, aquatic amphibians and aquatic insects are ammonotelic in nature. In CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination, you will get questions and answers related to the excretory products and their elimination in different organisms (including humans). If you are looking for an answer from any other chapter even from any other class then go with NCERT Solutions, there you will get all the answers of NCERT easily.
Here are the important topics of solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination mentioned below:
19.1 Human Excretory System
19.2 Urine Formation
19.3 Function of the Tubules
19.4 Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate
19.5 Regulation of Kidney Function
19.7 Role of other Organs in Excretion
19.8 Disorders of the Excretory System
In this chapter you will study that urine formation involves three main processes that are: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. Filtration is a non-selective process performed by the glomerulus using the glomerular capillary blood pressure. About reabsorption and secretion, you have to study in this chapter as related questions are there in CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their eliminations.
After going through the solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination thoroughly, you must be able to understand all the answers of the following questions:
CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination- Solved Exercise Questions-
Q1. Define Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
Glomerular filtration rate- It refers to the amount of glomerular filtrate formed in all the nephrons of both the kidneys per minute. In a healthy individual, it is about 125 ml/minute. The glomerular filtrate contains glucose, amino acids, sodium, potassium, urea, uric acid, ketone bodies, and large amounts of water.
Q2. Explain the autoregulatory mechanism of GFR.
The kidneys have built-in mechanisms for the regulation of glomerular filtration rate. One such mechanism is the Juxtaglomerular apparatus. Juxtaglomerular apparatus is a microscopic structure located between the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle and the returning distal convoluted tubule of the same nephron. It plays a role in regulating the renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. When there is a fall in the glomerular filtration rate, it activates the juxtaglomerular cells to release renin. This stimulates the glomerular blood flow, thereby bringing the GFR back to normal. Renin brings the GFR back to normal by the activation of the renin-angiotensin mechanism.
Q3. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false:
(a) Micturition is carried out by a reflex.
(b) ADH helps in water elimination, making the urine hypotonic.
(c) Protein-free fluid is filtered from blood plasma into the Bowman’s capsule.
(d) Henle’s loop plays an important role in concentrating the urine.
(e) Glucose is actively reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.
(a) Micturition is carried out by a reflex. True statement
(b) ADH helps in water elimination, making the urine hypotonic. False statement
(c) The protein-free fluid is filtered from blood plasma into the Bowman’s capsule. True statement
(d) Henle’s loop plays an important role in concentrating the urine. True statements
(e) Glucose is actively reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule. True statements
NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination:
Q4. Give a brief account of the counter current mechanism.
The function of the countercurrent mechanism that operates inside the kidney is to conserve the water and make the urine concentrated. The countercurrent mechanism depends upon the loops of Henle, vasa recta, collecting ducts and interstitial fluid. The blood flows in the two limbs of the tube in opposite directions giving rise to the counter-currents. The proximity between the loop of Henle and vasa recta, as well as the countercurrent in them, help in maintaining an in increasing osmolarity towards the inner medullary interstitial fluid i.e. 300 mOsmol/L in the cortex to 1200 mOsmol/L in the inner medulla. This gradient is mainly caused by NaCl and urea. NaCl is transported by the ascending limb of the loop of Henle which is exchanged with the descending capillary of vasa recta. Similarly, small amounts of urea enter the thin segment of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle which is transported back to the medullary interstitial fluid by the collecting duct.
The countercurrent mechanism helps to maintain a concentration gradient in the medullary interstitial fluid which helps in easy absorption of water from the filtrate present in the collecting duct so that the concentration of the filtrate is increased. The overall function of the counter current mechanism is to concentrate sodium chloride in the interstitial fluid and cause water to diffuse out of the collecting ducts and concentrate the urine. This leads to the production of hypertonic urine.
Q5. Describe the role of liver, lungs and skin in excretion.
Apart from kidney, liver, lungs, and skin also play important roles in the process of excretion.
1. LIver- The liver is the largest gland in vertebrates which helps in the excretion of compounds like cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamins, drugs, and other waste materials via the production of bile. Urea is formed in the liver by the ornithine cycle whereas ammonia which is a toxic substance is quickly changed into urea in the liver and hence gets eliminated from the body. The liver is also responsible for changing the decomposed haemoglobin pigment into bile pigments in the form of bilirubin and biliverdin.
2. Lungs: The lungs help in removal of waste materials such as carbon dioxide from the body.
3. Skin: Skin possesses many glands that help in excreting waste products through pores in the skin. The two types of glands present in the skin are sweat and sebaceous glands. The sweat glands are highly vascular and tubular glands which separate the waste products from the blood and excrete them in the form of sweat. Sweat also removes excess salt and water from the body. Sebaceous glands are branched glands that secrete an oily secretion called sebum.
Q6. Explain micturition
The process by which the urine from the urinary bladder is excreted out is called micturition. As the urine accumulates, the muscular walls of the bladder expands and cause the stimulation of the sensory nerves in the bladder, setting up a reflex action. This reflex stimulates the urge to pass out urine. In order to discharge urine, the urethral sphincter relaxes and the smooth muscles of the bladder contract. This forces the urine out from the bladder. An adult human excretes about 1 — 1.5 litres of urine per day.
Q7. Match the items of column I with those of column II :
Column I Column II
(a) Ammonotelism (i) Birds
(b) Bowman’s capsule (ii) Water reabsorption
(c) Micturition (iii) Bony fish
(d) Uricotelism (iv) Urinary bladder
(e) ADH (v) Renal tubule
The correct matching is a-iii, b-v, c-iv, d-i, e-ii
Column I Column II
(a) Ammonotelism (iii) Bony fish
(b) Bowman’s capsule (v) Renal tubule
(c) Micturition (iv) Urinary bladder
(d) Uricotelism (i) Birds
(e) ADH (ii) Water reabsorption
Q8. What is meant by the term osmoregulation?
Osmoregulation- It is a homeostatic mechanism that regulates the optimum temperature of water and salts in the tissues and body fluids. It maintains the internal environment of the body by maintaining the water and ionic concentration.
Q9. Terrestrial animals are generally either ureotelic or uricotelic, not ammonotelic, why ?
Terrestrial animals are either ureotelic or uricotelic, and not ammonotelic because of the following two reasons:
1. Since ammonia is highly toxic in nature, it needs to be converted into a less toxic form such as urea or uric acid.
2. Terrestrial animals need to conserve water. Ammonia being soluble in water, cannot be eliminated continuously. Hence, it needs to be converted into urea or uric acid which are insoluble in water. This helps terrestrial animals conserve water.
CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination:
Q10. What is the significance of juxta glomerular apparatus (JGA) in kidney function?
Juxtaglomerular apparatus is an apparatus consisting of a few cells of the glomerulus, distal tubule, and afferent and efferent arterioles It is involved in maintaining the glomerular filtration rate in the kidney. JGA is found to be located in a specialised region of a nephron, where the afferent arteriole and the distal convoluted tubule are in direct contact with each other. The juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of certain specialised cells of the afferent arteriole. These cells are known as juxtaglomerular cells and they contain the enzyme renin that can sense blood pressure. When there is a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate, the juxtaglomerular cells get activated and release renin which functions to converts the angiotensinogen in the blood into angiotensin I and further into angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a powerful vasoconstrictor that can increase the glomerular filtration rate or glomerular blood pressure. Angiotensin II further stimulates the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland to produce aldosterone which increases the rate of absorption of sodium ions and water from the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct. Later on, it leads to an increase in the blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate. This mechanism is known as the renin-angiotensin mechanism, ultimately leads to increased blood pressure. Juxtaglomerular apparatus plays an important role in the renin-angiotensin mechanism.
Q12. Fill in the gaps :
(a) Ascending limb of Henle’s loop is _______ to water whereas the descending limb is _______ to it.
(b) Reabsorption of water from distal parts of the tubules is facilitated by hormone _______.
(c) Dialysis fluid contain all the constituents as in plasma except _______.
(d) A healthy adult human excretes (on an average) _______ gm of urea/day.
(a) Ascending limb of Henle’s loop is impermeable to water whereas the descending limb is permeable to it.
(b) Reabsorption of water from distal parts of the tubules is facilitated by hormone ADH.
(c) Dialysis fluid contains all the constituents as in plasma except nitrogenous wastes
(d) A healthy adult human excretes (on an average) 20-30 gm of urea/day.
If you are unable to determine these questions or facing any problem to understand them, then go through the book again and then try to solve all the given questions by yourself and then match it from the CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination, as it will help you to prepare not only for the school exam also for other competitive exam like NEET.
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