NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and integration

 

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration: You have already learnt that the neural system provides point-to-point rapid coordination among organs. Neural coordination is fast but short-lived. As the nerve fibers do not innervate all cells of the body and the cellular functions need to be continuously regulated; a special kind of coordination and integration has to be provided. This function is carried out by hormones. In CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration, you will get deep understanding about such facts. The neural system and the endocrine system jointly coordinate and regulate the physiological functions in the body. There are special chemicals that act as hormones and provide chemical coordination, integration, and regulation in the human body. NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration will help you to get all the answers of this chapter. You will learn which hormone regulates metabolism, growth, and development of our organs, the endocrine glands or certain cells. And if you are looking for the solutions of any other class then, NCERT Solutions are there for you to provide solutions of any class (from 6-12).

Here are the important topics of NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration mentioned below:

22.1 Endocrine Glands and Hormones

22.2 Human Endocrine System

    22.2.1 The Hypothalamus

    22.2.2 The Pituitary Gland

    22.2.3 The Pineal Gland

    22.2.4 Thyroid Gland

    22.2.5 Parathyroid Gland

    22.2.6 Thymus

    22.2.7 Adrenal Gland

    22.2.8 Pancreas

    22.2.9 Testis

    22.2.10 Ovary

22.3 Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract

22.4 Mechanism of Hormone Action

Whule going through solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration, you will learn many facts like the testis secretes androgens, which stimulate the development, maturation, and functions of the male accessory sex organs, appearance of the male secondary sex characters, spermatogenesis, male sexual behavior, anabolic pathways, and erythropoiesis. The ovary secretes estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen stimulates growth and development of female accessory sex organs and secondary sex characters. Progesterone plays a major role in the maintenance of pregnancy as well as in mammary gland development and lactation.

After going through CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration, which is the last chapter of the book, you must be able to answer a few questions which are mentioned below:

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and integration- Solved Exercise Questions:

Q1. Define the following:

(a) Exocrine gland

Answer:

Exocrine gland-

The glands which discharge their secretions into ducts are known as exocrine glands. Examples of exocrine glands include sebaceous gland in the skin, salivary gland in the buccal cavity, etc.

Q1.    Define the following:

(b) Endocrine gland

Answer:

Endocrine glands-

The glands which do not discharge their secretions into ducts are known as endocrine glands. These glands discharge their secretions directly into the blood. Examples of endocrine glands include Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, etc.

Q1.  Define the following:

(c) Hormone

Answer:

Hormones-

The hormones are chemical messengers that regulate physiological processes in living organisms. They act upon specific cells/tissues/organs.

Q2.  Diagrammatically indicate the location of the various endocrine glands in our body.

Answer:

Location of the various endocrine glands in our body is depicted below

Endocrine Gland

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and integration

Q3.  List the hormones secreted by the following:

(a) Hypothalamu

Answer:

The hormones secreted by the hypothalamus include divided into two groups 

(1).  Releasing hormones- These include  gonadotropin-releasing hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, somatotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotrophin-releasing hormone

(2). Inhibiting hormones: These include somatostatin, growth-inhibiting hormone, melanocyte-inhibiting hormone

Q3. List the hormones secreted by the following:

(b) Pituitary

Answer:

The pituitary gland has two components i.e., adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis.

Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis are growth hormone (GH), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

Hormones secreted by the neurohypophysis are oxytocin and vasopressin

Q3. List the hormones secreted by the following: (c) Thyroid

Answer:

Thyroid gland- The thyroid gland secretes three hormones namely, thyroxin, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin.

Q3.  List the hormones secreted by the following:

(d) Parathyroid

Answer:

Parathyroid- It secretes parathyroid hormone

Q3.  List the hormones secreted by the following:

(e) Adrenal

Answer:

Adrenal gland - The adrenal gland is divided into two parts, the outer adrenal cortex and the inner adrenal medulla.

Hormones of adrenal cortex include aldosterone and cortisol.

Hormones of adrenal medulla are adrenaline and nor-adrenalin.

Q3. List the hormones secreted by the following:

(f) Pancrea

Answer:

Pancreas: Hormones secreted by the pancreas are insulin and glucagon.

Q3.  List the hormones secreted by the following:

(g) Testi

Answer:

Testis: The hormone secreted by the testis is testosterone.

Q3. List the hormones secreted by the following:

(h) Ovary

Answer:

Ovary: The hormone secreted by the ovary includes estrogen and progesterone.

Q3. List the hormones secreted by the following:

(i) Thymus

Answer:

Thymus: Hormones secreted by the thymus are thymosins.

Q3.  List the hormones secreted by the following:

(j) Atrium

Answer:

Atrium: The walls of the atrium secrete atrial natriuretic factor.

Q3. List the hormones secreted by the following:

(k) Kidney

Answer:

Kidney: The hormone secreted by the kidney is erythropoietin.

Q3. List the hormones secreted by the following:

(l) G-I Tract

Answer:

G-l tract- The hormones secreted by the G-l tract are Gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).

Q4.    Fill in the blanks:

                                Hormones                                 Target gland
                (a) Hypothalamic hormones                 __________________
                (b) Thyrotrophin (TSH)                           __________________
                (c) Corticotrophin (ACTH)                      __________________
                (d) Gonadotrophins (LH, FSH)              __________________
                (e) Melanotrophin (MSH)                      __________________    

 

Answer:

                Hormones                                             Target gland
                (a) Hypothalamic hormones                Pituitary gland
                (b) Thyrotrophin (TSH)                         Thyroid gland
                (c) Corticotrophin (ACTH)                    Adrenal cortex
                (d) Gonadotrophins (LH, FSH)            Testis and ovaries
                (e) Melanotrophin (MSH)                     Pigment cells of the dermis of the skin

Q5.  Write short notes on the functions of the following hormones:

(a) Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Answer:

Function of Parathyroid hormone (PTH):

  • The parathyroid hormone maintains the calcium levels in the body.

  • It increases the calcium levels of the blood.

  • It stimulates bone resorption which demineralises bones increasing blood calcium levels.

  • It also stimulates calcium absorption by renal tubules and from the digested food.

Q5. Write short notes on the functions of the following hormones:

(b) Thyroid hormone

Answer:

Function of Thyroid hormones are given below:

Thyroxine/tetraiodothyronine (T4):

  • It regulates the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  • It regulates body growth such as ossification of bones and mental development.

  • It controls body weight.

  • It also controls tissue differentiation and metamorphosis of the tadpole larva into an adult frog.

  • It suppresses RBC formation.

Tri-iodothyronine (T3):

  • It increases the body's oxygen and energy consumption.

  • It increases the heart rate and force of contraction which increases the cardiac output.

Q5. Write short notes on the functions of the following hormones:

(c) Thymosin

Answer:

Function of Thymosins given below:

  • Thymosin stimulates the differentiation of T-lymphocytes and provides cell-mediated immunity.

  • It promotes the production of antibodies to provide humoral immunity.

  • It also stimulates the rate of cell division in kids and hence promotes growth.

Q5.    Write short notes on the functions of the following hormones:

(d) Androgens

Answer:

The function of Androgens are given below:

Testosterone:

Testosterone helps in the maturation of sperms.
It stimulates the growth and development of the male reproductive system.
It stimulates the development of secondary sexual characters such as beard and moustache.
It produces anabolic effects on protein and carbohydrate metabolism.

Androsterone:

It affects the masculinisation of the foetus and child, and maintains or creates masculine traits in adults.

Q5. Write short notes on the functions of the following hormones:

(e) Estrogen

Answer:

The primary function of estrogens is the development of female secondary sexual characteristics. These include breasts, endometrium, regulation of the menstrual cycle, etc. In males, estrogen helps in maturation of the sperm and maintenance of a healthy libido.

Q5. Write short notes on the functions of the following hormones:

(f) Insulin and Glucagon

Answer:

The function of Insulin and Glucagon are given below:

Insulin:

It plays a major role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
It acts on hepatocytes and adipocytes.
It stimulates the transport of glucose from the blood to muscle.
It promotes the oxidation of glucose and the conversion of glucose to glycogen, i.e. glycogenesis, resulting in hypoglycemia.

Glucagon:

It plays a major role in the maintenance of normal blood glucose levels.
It acts on hepatocytes and stimulates the conversion of glycogen into glucose.
It also stimulates the process of gluconeogenesis, i.e. the conversion of non-carbohydrate substances such as fats and proteins to glucose.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and integration:

Q6. Give example(s) of:

(a) Hyperglycemic hormone and hypoglycemic hormone

Answer:

Hyperglycemic hormone- glucagon

hypoglycemic hormone- insulin

Q6.  Give example(s) of:

(b) Hypercalcemic hormone

Answer:

Parathormone hormone

Q6. Give example(s) of:

(c) Gonadotrophic hormone

Answer:

Luteinising hormone (LH)

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Q6.  Give example(s) of:

(e) Blood pressure lowering hormone

Answer:

Atrial natriuretic factor

Q6.  Give example(s) of:

(f) Androgens and estrogens

Answer:

Androgens : Testosterone and androsterone

Estrogens : β-oestradiol

Q7. Which hormonal deficiency is responsible for the following:

(a) Diabetes mellitu

Answer:

Insufficient secretion of insulin is responsible.

Q7. Which hormonal deficiency is responsible for the following:

(b) Goitre

Answer:

Insufficient secretion of thyroxin is responsible.

Q7. Which hormonal deficiency is responsible for the following:

(c) Cretinism

Answer:

Insufficient secretion of thyroxine is responsible.

Q8.  Briefly mention the mechanism of action of FSH.

Answer:

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone. It is insoluble in lipid and hence cannot enter the target cell. This hormone binds to the cell surface and activates cellular systems to perform functions.

Steps in action of FSH:

  • A molecule of FSH binds on the receptor protein present on the cell surface and forms the hormone-receptor complex.

  • Formation of hormone-receptor complex activates the enzyme adenyl cyclase.

  • Adenyl cyclase converts ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP) as a second messenger.

  • cAMP activates the follicular cells of membrane granulose to secrete estrogens.

Q9.  Match the following:

Column I

Column II

(a) T4

(i) Hypothalamus

(b) PTH

(ii) Thyroid

(c) GnRH

(iii) Pituitary

(d) LH

(iv) Parathyroid

Answer:

Column I

Column II

(a) T4

(ii) Thyroid

(b) PTH

(iv) Parathyroid

(c) GnRH

(i) Hypothalamus

(d) LH

(iii) Pituitary

If you have any doubt in solving these questions by yourself then, don't worry NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration is there for you.

NCERT Solutions for class 11 Biology

Chapter 1

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 1 the living world

Chapter 2

Solutions of NCERT for class 11 biology chapter 2 biological classification

Chapter 3

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom

Chapter 4

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 4 animal kingdom

Chapter 5

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants

Chapter 6

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 6 anatomy of flowering plants

Chapter 7

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals

Chapter 8

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 Cell: The Unit of Life

Chapter 9

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules

Chapter 10

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Chapter 11

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants

Chapter 12

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Chapter 13

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Chapter 14

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants

Chapter 15

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development

Chapter 16

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption

Chapter 17

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Chapter 18

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation

Chapter 19

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination

Chapter 20

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 20 locomotion and movement

Chapter 21

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 21 neural control and coordination

Chapter 22

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration

NCERT Solutions for Class 11- Subject wise

NCERT solutions for Class 11 Maths

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Chemistry

CBSE NCERT solutions for Class 11 Physics

What are the benefits of NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter :

  • NCERT is the base of your learning.
  • You will get all the answers to this chapter and it will help you to score good marks in the exam.
  • It will also boost your knowledge.
  • NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter will also help you in your 12th board exam.
  • CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.
 

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