NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants

 

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants: This chapter will tell you that flowering plants exhibit enormous variation in shape, size, structure, mode of nutrition, life span, habit, and habitat and they have well-developed root and shoot systems. CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants contain solutions which comprise of an excellent explanation of all the questions which are based on the morphology of all the flowering plants. The roots in some plants get modified for the storage of food, mechanical support, and respiration and based on this, questions are also mentioned at the end of the chapter, so to get the answers of those, go with solutions of NCERT for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants. The shoot system is differentiated into stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits. In CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants you will also study the morphological features of stems like the presence of nodes and internodes, multicellular hair and positively phototropic nature help to differentiate the stems from roots. If you are looking for an answer from any other chapter even from any other class then go with NCERT Solutions, there you will get all the answers of NCERT easily.

Here are the important topics of CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants mentioned below: 

5.1 The Root

    5.1.1 Regions of the Root

    5.1.2 Modifications of Root

5.2 The Stem

    5.2.1 Modifications of Stem

5.3 The Leaf

    5.3.1 Venation

    5.3.2 Types of Leaves

    5.3.3 Phyllotaxy

    5.3.4 Modifications of Leaves

5.4 The Inflorescence

5.5 The Flower

    5.5.1 Parts of a Flower

        5.5.1.1 Calyx

        5.5.1.2 Corolla

        5.5.1.3 Androecium

        5.5.1.4 Gynoecium

5.6 Fruit

5.7 The Seed

    5.7.1 Structure of a Dicotyledonous Seed

    5.7.2 Structure of Monocotyledonous Seed

5.8 Semi-technical Description of a Typical Flowering Plant

5.9 Description of Some Important

    5.9.1 Fabaceae

    5.9.2 Solanaceae

    5.9.3 Liliaceae 

You will learn that the flower is a modified shoot, which is meant for sexual reproduction. The flowers are arranged in different types of inflorescences. They exhibit enormous variation in structure, symmetry, the position of ovary in relation to other parts, an arrangement of petals, sepals, ovules, etc.

A very important topic related to which you will get questions and answers in NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants, is the floral features are represented in the summarised form as floral diagrams and floral formula.

After going through the solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants, you must be able to understand the answers of the following questions:

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants- Solved Exercise Questions

Q1. What is meant by modification of root ? What type of modification of root is found in the:

     (a) Banyan tree

     (b) Turnip

     (c) Mangrove tress

Answer:

Roots are the underground water and mineral absorbing parts of the plants. Apart from the function of water and mineral absorption, roots of some plants often modify to perform various other functions such as storage, nitrogen fixation, aeration and support etc. These are called root modifications.

The modification of root found in 

(a) Banyan tree- In banyan tree roots modify to provide support to the tree. The banyan tree possesses pillar-like adventitious roots that arise from the aerial part of the stem. These roots grow towards the ground and provide support to the tree. Such roots are called prop roots.

(b) Turnip- The roots of turnip are called napiform roots and they help in the storage of food. 

(c) Mangrove tree-  These possess roots that modify for the absorption of oxygen by growing vertically upwards from the soil. These types of roots are called pneumatophores.

Q2. Justify the following statements on the basis of external features:

(i) Underground parts of a plant are not always roots.

Answer:

Roots of a plant are generally underground while the stem is present above the ground. However, it is not necessary that root is the only part of the plant to be found underground. In some specific conditions, stems are also found to be present in underground regions. For example, The stems in ginger and banana are underground and swollen due to the storage of food. They are called rhizomes. Similarly, the corm is an underground stem in Colocasia. Similarly, in peanuts, the flower after fertilization gets pushed inside the soil by growing a flower stalk. Hence, by this information, we can conclude that underground parts of a plant are not always roots.

Q2. Justify the following statements on the basis of external features:

(ii) Flower is a modified shoot.

Answer:

After a certain period of growth, the apical meristem of a stem gives rise to the floral meristem. While the formation of the floral meristem, the axis of the stem gets condensed, and the internodes lie near each other. Various floral appendages arise from the node. A flower can be said to be a modified shoot because of the presence of nodes and internodes. 

Q3. How is a pinnately compound leaf different from a palmately compound leaf?

Answer:

Pinnately compound leaf Palmately compound leaf

In a Pinnately compound leaves, a number of leaflets are present on a common axis called rachis. Example- Neem.

In Palmately compound leaves, the leaflets are attached at a common point. Example- Silk cotton.

compound leaf Compound leaf

 

 

Q4. Explain with suitable examples the different types of phyllotaxy.

Answer:

The pattern of arrangement of leaves on the stem or branch is called Phyllotaxy. There are three types of phyllotaxy found in plants.

1. Alternate phyllotaxy-  On a branch, a single leaf arises at each node. E.g China rose

2. Opposite phyllotaxy- At one node, two leaves arise, opposite to each other. E.g guava plant

3. Whorled phyllotaxy- More than two leaves arise at a node and form a whorl in whorled phyllotaxy. E.g Alstonia

Types of phyllotaxy

 

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants:

Q5. Define the following terms:

(a) aestivation

Answer:

Aestivation- The mode of arrangement of sepals or petals in the floral bud with respect to the other members of the same whorl is called aestivation. Aestivation in plants can be valvate, Wisted, imbricate, and vexillary.

Q5. Define the following terms:

(b) placentation

Answer:

Placentation- The arrangement of ovules within the ovary is called placentation. There are five types of placentation found in plants including marginal, basal, parietal, axile, and free central placentation. 

Q5. Define the following terms:

(c) actinomorphic

Answer:

Actinomorphic- The flowers which can be divided into two radial halves by any radial plane passing through its centre are called actinomorphic flowers. E.g. chilly and mustard.

Q5. Define the following terms:

(d) zygomorphic

Answer:

Zygomorphic-  The flowers which can be divided into two similar halves by a single vertical plane only are known as zygomorphic flowers. E.g. pea and beans.

Q5. Define the following terms:

(e) superior ovary

Answer:

Superior ovary- When the gynoecium is present at the highest position, while other floral parts are arranged below it, the ovary is said to be a superior ovary. A flower with this arrangement is described as hypogynous. Examples include brinjal and mustard.

Q5. Define the following terms:

(f) perigynous flower

Answer:

Perigynous flower- When the gynoecium is present in the centre while the rest of the floral parts are present at the rim of the thalamus at the same level as gynoecium, the flower is called perigynous flower. E.g. plum and rose.

Q5. Define the following terms:

(g) epipetalous stame

Answer:

Epipetalous stamen- The stamen which remains attached to the petals are called epipetalous stamens. E.g brinjal

Q6. Differentiate between

(a) Racemose and cymose inflorescence

Answer:

Racemose inflorescence

Cymose inflorescence

The main axis of flower continues to grow and produce flowers laterally in racemose inflorescence The main axis of the flower has limited growth and it terminates into a flower. 
Flowers grow in acropetal succession. The younger flowers are present at the tip while older flowers are found at the base. The older flowers are present at the tip whereas the younger flowers are found at the base of the axis. 

Q6. Differentiate between

(b) Fibrous root and adventitious root

Answer:

Fibrous root       Adventitious root
The primary root is replaced by a large number of roots at its base of the stem to constitute the Fibrous roots

The roots that arise from any part of the plant apart from radicle are called adventitious roots.

The examples of fibrous roots include wheat, rice etc The examples of plants with adventitious roots include grass, banyan tree, maize etc.

Q6. Differentiate between

(c) Apocarpous and syncarpous ovary

Answer:

Apocarpous ovary

syncarpous ovary

In a flower, when more than one free carpels are present, the ovary is called apocarpous ovary In a flower, when more than one carpels are found and they are fused, the ovary is called syncarpous ovary.
Examples of the apocarpous ovary include lotus and rose

Examples of the syncarpous ovary include mustard and tomato

 

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants:

Q7. Draw the labelled diagram of the following:

(i) gram seed

Answer:

Structure of gram seed- 

Gram seeds

 

Q7. Draw the labelled diagram of the following:

(ii). V.S. of maize seed

Answer:

    V.S. of maize seed- 

maize seeds

 

Q8. Describe modifications of stem with suitable examples.

Answer:

The major types of stem modifications are as follows: 

1. Rhizome- It is fleshy, non-green underground stem having distinct nodes and internodes. The nodes bear dry scale leaves with axillary buds. Adventitious roots arise from the lower side. e..g., Alocasia, Dryopteris, Banana, Ginger, turmeric, Canna etc.

2. Bulb- It is an underground pyriform to spherical structure bearing a reduced convex or slightly conical disc-shaped stem and several fleshy scales enclosing a terminal bud. e.g., Lily, onion etc.

3. Corm- It is a condensed form of rhizome growing in the vertical direction. It is more or less spherical with a flat base. Adventitious roots arise either from its base or all over the body. Examples- Colocasia, Amorphophallus.

4. Tuber- Stem tuber is a swollen tip of an underground stem. It possesses a number of small depressions called eyes. These eyes represent nodes. Adventitious roots are usually absent e.g., Potato.

5. Runner- These are special, narrow, green, above ground horizontal or prostrate branches which develop at the bases of erect shoots called crowns. E.g. Centella, Oxalis, doob grass etc. 

6. Stolon- These are elongated horizontal runners which can cross over small obstacles. The tip of the stolon generally grows above the level of the ground. E.g. Jasmine, peppermint, wild strawberry etc. 

7. Offset- They are one internode long small runners which are found in rosette plants at the ground level. E.g Pistia, Eichhornia etc. 

8. Stem- tendrils- These are thread like sensitive structures that coil around a support and help the plant in climbing. E.g. grapevine. 

9. Stem thorn- These are hard, stiff and sharp structures which protect the plants. E.g. Citrus, Bougainvillea, Duranta etc. 

10. Phylloclade- They are flattened or cylindrical green stems of unlimited growth which have taken over the function of photosynthesis. Formation of phylloclades helps the plants to grow in dry habitats. e.g. Opuntia, Casuarina etc. 

11. Cladode- These are the green stem of limited growth which have taken over the function of photosynthesis from the leaves. The true leaves are reduced to scales or spines. E.g. Ruscus. 

 

Q10. Describe the various types of placentations found in flowering plants.

Answer:

Placentation refers to the arrangement of ovules within the ovary of a flower. There can be 5 types of placentation in plants. These are as follows:

1. Marginal placentation: The placenta forms a ridge along the ventral suture of the ovary and the ovules develop on two separate rows in marginal placentation e.g. peas.

2. Parietal placentation: When the ovules develop on the inner walls of the ovary, the ovary is said to have parietal placentation.

 

3. Axile placentation: In axile placentation, the placenta is axial and ovules are attached to it e.g. China rose, lemon, and tomato.

4. Basal placentation: In basal placentation, the placenta develops from its base and a single ovule is found attached to the base. It is found in marigold and sunflower.

5. Free central placentation: The ovules develop on the central axis while the septa are absent in free central placentation. This type of placentation is found in Dianthus and primrose.

Placentation

 

 

Q11. What is a flower? Describe the parts of a typical angiosperm flower.

Answer:

Flower is the reproductive part of angiospermic plants for sexual means of reproduction. A typical flower has four whorls arranged on a swollen end of stalk or pedicel called thalamus. They are Calyx, Corolla, Androecium and Gynoecium.

1. Calyx- It is the outermost whorl of a flower. It is made up of units called sepals. It is generally green in colour and protective in function.

2. Corolla- It is the whorl present inner to the corolla. It consists of petals. The petals are brightly coloured to attract the insects. 

3. Androecium- It is the whorl present next to the corolla. The androecium mainly consists of stamens which are the male reproductive unit of a flower. A stamen is composed of two parts i.e. anther and filament.  The anther is the bilobed structure with a stalk called filament. Inside the anther, pollen grains are formed.

4. Gynoecium- The innermost whorl of a flower is called gynoecium. It consists of pistils. A pistil is composed of three parts stigma, style and ovary. Pistils are the female reproductive units of a flower. 

 

Flower

 

 

Q12. How do the various leaf modifications help plants?

Answer:

Leaf is a green, lateral and flattened outgrowth which is borne on the node of a stem or its branches is specialized to perform photosynthesis. Apart from photosynthesis, leaves often modify to perform several other functions also. Some of the modifications of leaves in plants that help the plants are as follows:

1. Tendrils- The leaves of the plants may modify into tendrils that help the plants in climbing

2. Spines- These are hard and stiff structures that act as organs of defence. e.g. cactus

3. Phyllode- The leaves of some plants are short-lived and they are soon replaced by flattened, green structures called phyllodes. These arise from the petiole of the leaves and involved in synthesising the food.

4. Pitcher- The leaves of the pitcher plant are modified into pitcher-like structures. These contain digestive juices and help in trapping and digesting insects.

Q13. Define the term inflorescence. Explain the basis for the different types of inflorescence in flowering plants.

Answer:

The arrangement of flowers on the floral axis is termed inflorescence. There can be two types of the inflorescence i.e. racemose and cymose on the basis of whether the floral axis continues to grow or end in a flower. In racemose inflorescence, the floral axis continuous to grow and bear flowers whereas in cymose inflorescence the floral axis stopped growing and terminates into a flower.


13.

Q14. Write the floral formula of a actinomorphic, bisexual, hypogynous flower with five united sepals, five free petals, five free stamens and two united carples with superior ovary and axile placentation.

Answer:

The floral formula of an actinomorphic, bisexual, hypogynous flower with five united sepals, five free petals, five free stamens and two united carpels with the superior ovary and axile placentation is as follows: 

Floral formula

 

Q15. Describe the arrangement of floral members in relation to their insertion on thalamus.

Answer:

There can be three types of arrangements of floral members in relation to their insertion on the thalamus. These are as follows:

1. Hypogynous – Ovary occupies the highest position while the other parts are situated below the ovary. The ovary in such case is called superior. Eg. Mustard, brinjal and China rose. Flowers with this arrangement are called hypogynous flowers. 

 2. Perigynous -In this arrangement, the gynoecium is situated at the centre and other parts are on the rim at the same height. Such ovary is called half-inferior and flowers are called perigynous flowers. 

 3. Epigynous- In this arrangement, the ovary is situated below all the other parts. The ovary, in this case, is said to be inferior while the flower is called epigynous flower. 

Floral parts on thalmus

If you are unable to determine these questions or facing any problem to understand them, then go through the book again and then try to solve all the given questions by yourself and then match it from the CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 4 animal kingdom, as it will help you to prepare not only for the 12th board exam even also for other competitive exams like NEET.

NCERT Solutions for class 11 Biology

Chapter 1

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 1 the living world

Chapter 2

Solutions of NCERT for class 11 biology chapter 2 biological classification

Chapter 3

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom

Chapter 4

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 4 animal kingdom

Chapter 5

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants

Chapter 6

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 6 anatomy of flowering plants

Chapter 7

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals

Chapter 8

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 Cell: The Unit of Life

Chapter 9

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules

Chapter 10

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Chapter 11

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants

Chapter 12

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Chapter 13

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Chapter 14

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants

Chapter 15

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development

Chapter 16

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption

Chapter 17

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Chapter 18

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation

Chapter 19

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination

Chapter 20

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 20 locomotion and movement

Chapter 21

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 21 neural control and coordination

Chapter 22

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration

NCERT Solutions for Class 11- Subject wise

NCERT solutions for Class 11 Maths

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Chemistry

CBSE NCERT solutions for Class 11 Physics

What are the benefits of NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants:

  • NCERT is the base of your learning.
  • You will get all the answers to this chapter and it will help you to score good marks in the exam.
  • CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.
  • It will also boost your knowledge.
  • NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants will also help you in your 12th board exam.
 

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