NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules: Do you know that there is a wide diversity in living organisms in our biosphere. Now the question that arises in our minds is: Are all living organisms made of the same chemicals, i.e., elements and compounds? As in the NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules you will get questions along with their answers and all will be related to the biomolecules. You have learnt in chemistry how elemental analysis is performed. If we perform such an analysis on plant tissue, animal tissue or a microbial paste, we obtain a list of elements like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and several others and their respective content per unit mass of living tissue. Chapter 9 Biomolecules, will tell you that, what type of organic compounds are found in living organisms? How does one go about finding the answer? To get an answer, one has to go with CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules. An examination reveals that the relative abundance of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen is higher in living systems when compared to inanimate matter. With the help of NCERT solutions, you will get the answer of all the questions of NCERT.
Here are the important topics of CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules mentioned below:
9.1 How to Analyse Chemical Composition?
9.2 Primary and Secondary Metabolites
9.6 Nucleic Acids
9.7 Structure of Proteins
9.8 Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer
9.9 Dynamic State of Body Constituents - Concept of Metabolism
9.10 Metabolic Basis for Living
9.11 The Living State
- 9.12.1 Chemical Reactions
- 9.12.2 How do Enzymes bring about such High Rates of Chemical Conversions?
- 9.12.3 Nature of Enzyme Action
- 9.12.4 Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
- 9.12.5 Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes
- 9.12.6 Co-factors
Biomacromolecules have a hierarchy of structures:
- tertiary and
To understand the solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules you have to learn that nucleic acids are served as genetic material and polysaccharides are components of the cell wall in plants, fungi and also of the exoskeleton of arthropods. They are also considered as a storage forms of energy (e.g., starch and glycogen). Many of them are enzymes, some are antibodies, some are receptors, some are hormones and some others are structural proteins.
After going through NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules line by line, you must be able to understand all the answer the questions which are given below:
CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules - Solved Exercise Questions-
Q1. What are macromolecules? Give examples.
The large sized complex molecules that get separated in acid-insoluble fraction using trichloroacetic acid are called macromolecules. These are polymers having a molecular mass of 10,000 daltons or more. Examples of macromolecules include proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids etc. Lipids are found to be present in the acid-insoluble fraction, however, they are not of high molecular weight.
Q2. Illustrate a glycosidic, peptide and a phospho-diester bond.
Glycosidic bond- This bond is formed between the 1st carbon atom of one monosaccharide with 4 carbon atom of neighbouring monosaccharide unit. During the formation of this bond, a water molecule is released. A representation of a glycosidic bond is as follows
Peptide bond- This is a covalent bond formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of neighbouring amino acid. A water molecule is released in the formation of a peptide bond. A representation of a peptide bond is as follows
Phosphodiester bond- It refers to the phosphate-hydroxyl linkage between two nucleotides. In this bond, the phosphate attached to the hydroxyl group at the 5' carbon of pentose sugar is in turn bonded to the hydroxyl group of the 3' carbon of the pentose sugar of the next nucleotide.
3. What is meant by tertiary structure of proteins?
The three-dimensional structure of the protein which is formed after repeated coiling and folding of helical and pleated polypeptide chains is called its tertiary structure. By repeated coiling and folding, the polar side chains are exposed while non-polar amino acids are hidden. Tertiary structure is bonded via weak bonds. The functionality of a protein lies in its tertiary structures.
6. Find out and make a list of proteins used as therapeutic agents. Find other applications of proteins (e.g., Cosmetics etc.)
Proteins with therapeutic uses are insulin, oxytocin, ADH, thrombin, fibrinogen, renin, immunoglobulin, diastase, streptokinase etc.
Other applications of proteins are
1. As cosmetics- Protein such as casein is used in beauty creams, shampoos etc.
2. Sweeteners- Thaumatin and monellin are sweet proteins.
3. Dietary supplements- Proteins can be used as dietary supplements.
Q7. Explain the composition of triglyceride.
A triglyceride is a chemical formed by esterification of three molecules of fatty acids with one molecule of trihydric alcohol called glycerol. All the three fatty acids of triglyceride can be similar as in tripalmitin or dissimilar as in palmito-oleoistearin, dipalmitostearin etc.
A qualitative test for proteins is the xanthoproteic test. When urine is tested for protein with the help of the xanthoproteic test, the presence of a yellow precipitate confirms the presence of protein in it.
The qualitative test for fats is emulsification test. In this test, the experimental material is treated with ethanol and then dissolved in water. Formation of emulsion confirms the presence of fats.
The qualitative test for oils is the paper test. The experimental material is put on a paper. If oil marks are left, the presence of oil is confirmed.
The qualitative test for amino acids is ninhydrin test.
Q15. Describe the important properties of enzymes.
Enzymes are proteinaceous substances which are capable of catalysing chemical reactions of biological origin without themselves undergoing any change. They are commonly called as biocatalysts. The properties of enzymes are as follows:
1. Enzymes are proteins by nature
2. Optimum temperature- An enzyme is active within a narrow range of temperature. The temperature at which an enzyme is most active is called the optimum temperature. The enzyme activity decrease above and below this temperature.
3. Optimum pH- Every enzyme has an optimum pH at which it is maximum active. Most of the intracellular enzymes work at neutral pH.
4. Enzymes are substrate specific i.e. one enzyme catalyses only a particular substrate. Every enzyme has specific sites called active sites for the binding of substrate.
5. Only a small quantity of enzyme is capable of forming the desired product
6. Enzyme activity is sensitive to certain chemicals called inhibitors or modulators.
If you have any query in understanding these solutions which are mentioned in the above then again go through the chapter of the NCERT textbook, then try to solve them by yourself and compare them with NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules. As this will help you not only for your school exam as it will also help you in the preparation of other competitive exams like NEET.
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What are the benefits of NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules:
- NCERT is the base of your learning.
- CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.
- You will get all the answers to this chapter and it will help you to score good marks in the exam.
- NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 9 biomolecules will also help you in your 12th board exam.
- It will also boost your knowledge.