NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Human Reproduction

 

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Human Reproduction:  As you know, humans are viviparous and reproduce sexually. The reproductive events in humans include the formation of gametes which is called as gametogenesis, that is, sperms in males and ovum in females, transfer of sperms into the female genital tract (insemination) and fusion of male and female gametes (fertilisation) leading to the formation of zygote. In solutions for NCERT class 12 biology chapter 3 Human Reproduction, you will get solutions from implantation, for that, you should know that it is followed by the formation and development of blastocyst and its attachment to the uterine wall (implantation), embryonic development (gestation) and delivery of the baby (parturition). In NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 3 human reproduction, you will also get interesting questions from the other topics for which you have to study the general principles about the reproductive processes in living organisms and their explanation in detail with related and representative examples. CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 3 human reproduction will also help you to understand the concepts and topics. If you are looking for the answers of any other class from 6-12 then NCERT solutions are there for you as it's the easiest way to get all the solutions of NCERT.

Male Reproductive System-

  • The male reproductive system is composed of a pair of testes, the male sex accessory ducts and the accessory glands and external genitalia.

  • Each testis has about 250 compartments called testicular lobules, and each lobule contains one to three highly coiled seminiferous tubules.

  • Each seminiferous tubule is lined inside by spermatogonia and Sertoli cells.

  • The spermatogonia undergo meiotic divisions leading to sperm formation, while Sertoli cells provide nutrition to the dividing germ cells.

Female Reproductive System-

  • The female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries, a pair of oviducts, a uterus, a vagina, external genitalia, and a pair of mammary glands.

  • The ovaries produce the female gamete (ovum) and some steroid hormones (ovarian hormones).

  • Ovarian follicles in different stages of development are embedded in the stroma.

  • The oviducts, uterus and vagina are female accessory ducts.

  • The uterus has three layers namely perimetrium, myometrium and endometrium.

Here are the important topics of NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 3 Human Reproduction given below:

3.1 The Male Reproductive System

3.2 The Female Reproductive System

3.3 Gametogenesis

3.4 Menstrual Cycle

3.5 Fertilization and Implantation

3.6 Pregnancy and Embryonic Development

3.7 Parturition and Lactation

In CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 3 human reproduction, there are questions from the sub-topic puberty also so, you have to learn that these reproductive events occur after puberty. There are remarkable differences between the reproductive events in the male and in the female, for example, sperm formation continues even in old men, but the formation of ovum ceases in women around the age of fifty years.

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 3 human reproduction is given below:

Human Reproduction Excercise:

Q1.     Fill in the blanks:

(a) Humans reproduce _____________ (asexually/sexually)
(b) Humans are _____________ (oviparous, viviparous, ovoviviparous)
(c) Fertilisation is _____________ in humans (external/internal)
(d) Male and female gametes are _____________ (diploid/haploid)
(e) Zygote is _____________ (diploid/haploid)

(f) The process of release of ovum from a mature follicle is called _____________
(g) Ovulation is induced by a hormone called _____________
(h) The fusion of male and female gametes is called _____________
(i) Fertilisation takes place in _____________
(j) Zygote divides to form _____________which is implanted in uterus.
(k) The structure which provides vascular connection between foetus and uterus is called    _____________

Answer:

(a) Humans reproduce sexually
(b) Humans are viviparous 
(c) Fertilisation is internal in humans
(d) Male and female gametes are haploid
(e) Zygote is diploid                                                                                                           

(f) The process of release of ovum from a mature follicle is called ovulation
(g) Ovulation is induced by a hormone called luteinizing hormone
(h) The fusion of male and female gametes is called fertilisation
(i) Fertilisation takes place in a fallopian tube
(j) Zygote divides to form a blastocyst which is implanted in the uterus.
(k) The structure which provides vascular connection between foetus and uterus is called  placenta

Q2. Draw a labelled diagram of male reproductive system.

Answer:

Labelled diagram of the male reproductive system is as follows: 

Male reproductive system

Q3. Draw a labelled diagram of female reproductive system.

Answer:

Female reproductive system 

Female reproductive system

Q4. Write two major functions each of testis and ovary.

Answer:

Functions of testis

  1. Testis produces spermatozoa which are male gametes. 
  2. In testis, the male sex hormone testosterone is developed.

Functions of ovary

  1. The ovary produces ovum by the process oogenesis.
  2. Graffian follicles in ovary produce female sex hormone called estrogen. 

Q5. Describe the structure of a seminiferous tubule.

Answer:

Seminiferous tubules are highly coiled structures present in testicular lobules. The seminiferous tubules are lined by two types of cells i.e. spermatogonia and sertoli cells from inside. Spermatogonia are the male germ cells that form sperms through meiotic divisions followed by mitotic division, while Sertoli cells provide nutrition to the germ cells. The regions outside the seminiferous tubules called is called the interstitial space and it contains small blood vessels and Leydig cells. TheLeydig's cells secrete androgens.

Tubule

Q6 What is spermatogenesis? Briefly describe the process of spermatogenesis.

Answer:

Spermatogenesis- It is the process of formation of spermatozoa from spermatogonia in testes at the time of puberty is called spermatogenesis. In this process, the spermatogonia present at the inner side of seminiferous tubules multiply by mitotic division and increase in number. Each spermatogonium contains 46 chromosomes. Spermatogonia forms spermatocyte that undergoes meiotic division to produce secondary spermatocytes having 23 chromosomes. The secondary spermatocytes undergo 2nd meiotic division to form spermatids. The spermatids are transformed into spermatozoa by the process called spermiogenesis. The sperm heads remain embedded in the Sertoli cells and are released from seminiferous tubules by the process of spermiation 

Spermatogenesis

Q7.  Name the hormones involved in regulation of spermatogenesis.

Answer:

Spermatogenesis initiated due to an increase in the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by the hypothalamus. Increase in GnRH act on anterior pituitary and stimulate secretion of two gonadotropins, LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicular stimulating hormone). Among these, LH acts on Leydig cells and stimulates them to secrete androgens whereas FSH acts on Sertoli cells and stimulates the secretion of some factors which help in spermiogenesis.

Q8. Define spermiogenesis and spermiation.

Answer:

Spermiogenesis- The spermatids are transformed into spermatozoa by the process called spermiogenesis.

Spermiation- The release of sperms from the seminiferous tubules occurs through a process called spermiation. 

Q9. Draw a labelled diagram of sperm.

Answer:

Labelled diagram of human sperm is as follows:

 

Sperm

Q10. What are the major components of seminal plasma?

Answer:

The major components of seminal plasma are mucous, fructose, calcium, ascorbic acid, certain enzymes and some secretions of accessory glands.

Q11. What are the major functions of male accessory ducts and glands?

Answer:

Male accessory ducts include vasa efferentia, epididymis. vas deferens and rete testis. THey transport and temporarily store spermatozoa. Male accessory glands include seminal vesicle, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland. These glands secrete fluids that lubricate the female reproductive system and sperms.

Q12. What is oogenesis? Give a brief account of oogenesis.

Answer:

The process of formation of mature female gametes is called oogenesis. It starts during embryonic development stage when millions of oogonia (gamete mother cells) are formed in each fetal ovary. The gamete mother cells start division and enter into prophase-I of meiotic division and get temporally arrested. At this stage, they are called primary oocytes. Each primary oocyte gets surrounded by a layer of granulosa cell than it is called the primary follicle. The primary follicle gets surrounded by more layers of granulosa cells called secondary follicle that transform into tertiary follicle that contains a fluid filled cavity called antrum. The tertiary follicles further change into the mature follicle called Graafian follicle, which rapture to release secondary oocytes (ovum) from the ovary by the process of ovulation.

Oogenesis

Q13. Draw a labelled diagram of a section through ovary.

Answer:

A labelled diagram of a section through the ovary is as follows: 

Ovary

Q14Draw a labelled diagram of a Graafian follicle?

Answer:

Diagram of Graffian follicle

Graffian follicle

Q15. Name the functions of the following:

(a) Corpus luteum

Answer:

Corpus luteum- 

It secretes progesterone. Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of endometrium.

 (b) Endometrium

Answer:

Endometrium- Implantation of the fertilized ovum and many events of pregnancy takes place in the endometrium.

(c) Acrosome

Answer:

Acrosome- It is filled with enzymes that hydrolyse egg membrane thus, helping the sperm in penetration of ovum during fertilisation of the ovum.

(d) Sperm tail

Answer:

Sperm tail-  It provides motility to sperms.

(e) Fimbriae

Answer:

Fimbriae- After ovulation, it helps in the collection of the ovum.

Q16. Identify True/False statements. Correct each false statement to make it true.

(a) Androgens are produced by Sertoli cells. (True/False)

Answer:

Androgens are produced by Sertoli cells. (False). 

Androgens are produced by Leydig's cells

(b) Spermatozoa get nutrition from Sertoli cells. (True/False)

Answer:

Spermatozoa get nutrition from Sertoli cells. (True)

(c) Leydig cells are found in ovary. (True/False)

Answer:

Leydig cells are found in ovary. (False)

Leydig cells are found in seminiferous tubules of testis

(d) Leydig cells synthesise androgens. (True/False)

Answer:

Leydig cells synthesise androgens. (True)

(e) Oogenesis takes place in corpus luteum. (True/False)

Answer:

Oogenesis takes place in corpus luteum. (False)

Oogenesis takes place in ovary

(f) Menstrual cycle ceases during pregnancy

Answer:

Menstrual cycle ceases during pregnancy. (True)

(g) Presence or absence of hymen is not a reliable indicator of virginity or sexual experience. (True/False)

Answer:

Presence or absence of hymen is not a reliable indicator of virginity or sexual experience. (True)

Q17. What is menstrual cycle? Which hormones regulate menstrual cycle?

Answer:

Menstrual cycle: The reproductive cycles in female primates is called the menstrual cycle. In a 28 days menstrual cycle, the menses takes place on cycle days 3-5. The menstrual cycle consists of phases like menstrual phase, follicular phase, ovulatory phase and luteal phase.

Menstrual phase

1. The production of LH from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is reduced.

2. The withdrawal of this hormone causes degeneration of the corpus luteum and, therefore progesterone production is reduced.

3. Production of oestrogen is also reduced in this phase.

4. The endometrium of the uterus breaks down & menstruation begins.

5. The cells of endometrium secretions, blood & unfertilised ovum constitute the menstrual flow.

Follicular phase-

1. This phase usually includes cycle days 6-13 or 14 in a 28 days cycle.

2. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland stimulates the ovarian follicle to secrete oestrogens.

3. Oestrogen stimulates the proliferation of the endometrium of the uterine wall.

4. The endometrium becomes thicker by rapid cell multiplication and this is accompanied by an increase in uterine glands & blood vessels.

Ovulatory phase

1. Both LH & FSH attain a peak level in the middle of the cycle (about 14th day).

2. Oestrogen concentration in blood increases.

3.  Rapid secretion of LH induces rupturing of the graffian follicle and thereby the release of the ovum. In fact, LH causes ovulation.

Luteal Phase:

1. Includes cycle days 15 to 28.

2. Corpus luteum secretes progesterone.

3. Endometrium thickens.

4. Uterine glands become secretory. 

Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle. 

1. FSH stimulates the ovarian follicles to produce oestrogens.

2. LH stimulates corpus luteum to secrete progesterone.

3. Menstrual phase is caused by the increased production of oestrogens.

4. LH causes ovulation

5. The proliferative phase is caused by the increased production of oestrogens.

6. The secretory phase is caused by increased production of progesterone.

Q18. What is parturition? Which hormones are involved in induction of parturition?

Answer:

The process of delivery of the foetus is called parturition. Oxytocin hormone causes a strong contraction of uterine. Contraction of uterine becomes stronger and stronger by the stimulatory reflex between uterine contraction and oxytocin secretion. This leads to the expulsion of the baby out of the uterus through the birth canal.

Q19. In our society the women are often blamed for giving birth to daughters. Can you explain why this is not correct?

Answer:

The sex chromosome in human female is XX while in a male it is XY. Thus, female produces haploid gametes having all X chromosomes but male produces two types of gametes with either X or Y.  The sex of the child will be dependent on which sperm whether the one with X chromosomes or the one with Y chromosome fertilises the ovum with X chromosome.  Therefore, the sex of the baby is determined by the father's chromosomes not mother's.

Q20. How many eggs are released by a human ovary in a month? How many eggs do you think would have been released if the mother gave birth to identical twins? Would your answer change if the twins born werefraternal?

Answer:

One ovum is released by a human ovary in a month. Identical twins are developed from a single egg. Hence, only one egg would have been released when the mother gave birth to identical twins. If the twins are fraternal twins then they must have been developed from two eggs.

Q21. How many eggs do you think were released by the ovary of a female dog which gave birth to 6 puppies?

Answer:

Dogs are polyovulatory animals and they release more than one egg at a particular time. So, a female dog with 6 puppies in one generation, releases 6 eggs. 

After going through this chapter line by line, you must have understood all the concepts of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 3 human reproduction. Now for your practice, use solutions for NCERT class 12 biology chapter 3 human reproduction and also try to solve all the questions which are mentioned at the end of this chapter and if you need any help for the correct answer then, NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 3 human reproduction which is mentioned in the above:

NCERT Solutions class 12 – Biology

Chapter 1

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 1 Reproduction in organisms

Chapter 2

Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Chapter 3

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 3 Human Reproduction

Chapter 4

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Chapter 5

Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Chapter 6

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 6 Molecular basis of inheritance

Chapter 7

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 7 Evolution

Chapter 8

Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 8 Human health and disease

Chapter 9 

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Chapter 10

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare

Chapter 11

Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 11 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Chapter 12

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter 13

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 13 Organisms and Populations

Chapter 14

Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 14 Ecosystem

Chapter 15

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 16

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 16 Environmental Issues

NCERT Solutions for Class 12- Subject wise

NCERT solutions for Class 12 Maths

Solutions for NCERT Class 12 Chemistry

CBSE NCERT solutions for  Class 12 Biology

NCERT solutions for Class 12 Physics

Why you should go with solutions for NCERT class 12 biology chapter 3 human reproduction: If still you have any doubt, or unable to solve the question mentioned in the NCERT then go through the CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 3 human reproduction. It will help you to understand the concept behind the questions and also help you to prepare for a competitive exam (NEET) along with your school exam, as NCERT is the base for any kind of exam. NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 3 human reproduction will also help you to prepare for 12th board exam.

 

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