NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life - As the name suggests this chapter tells the importance of chemistry in our daily life and this is the last chapter of NCERT class 12 chemistry book. In this chapter the solutions of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 16 chemistry in everyday life, you will learn the application of chemistry in three important areas - food materials, medicines, and cleaning agents. You may get stuck while solving exercises of this chapter and this is where CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 16 chemistry in everyday life comes handy. This is an important chapter for both CBSE board exam as well as competitive exams like NEET, JEE Mains, BITSAT etc. In fact, some of the questions of this chapter are asked in various government exams like UPSC and SSC, hence it is important to resolve your doubts by reading NCERT solutions. In this chapter, there are 5 intext questions and 27 questions in the exercise. The NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life has all the answers to the questions that are prepared in order to improve your writing skills in the exams.

After completing the NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 16 chemistry in everyday life, students will be able to understand the importance of chemistry in our daily life, explain the term like chemotherapy, able to describe drugs classification, drug-target interaction (enzymes as drug targets & receptors as drug targets) and explain how different types of drugs function in the body. In this chapter, we will also know about food preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, the chemistry of cleaning agents. You will get all the solutions of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 16 chemistry in everyday life by scrolling down.

Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life, talks about the application of chemistry in three important areas - food materials, medicines(drugs), and cleansing agents(like detergents). Let's briefly discuss each area one-by-one.

• Food additives such as sweetening agents, preservatives, flavours, edible colours, nutritional supplements and antioxidants are added to the food to make it palatable, attractive and also add nutritive values.
• The drugs and medicines are chemical agents, which affects metabolism and provides a cure from the ailment. Drugs or medicines may have some poisonous effects if they are taken in doses higher than recommended. Use of these chemicals for the therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy. Drugs usually interact with the target molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids.
• Now a day, detergents which is a cleansing agent get preference over soaps because detergents work even in the hard water. Synthetic detergents are classified into three categories: cationic, anionic and non-ionic.

Topics and Sub-topics of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life-

16.1 Drugs and their Classification

16.2 Drug-Target Interaction

16.3 Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs

16.4 Chemicals in Food

16.5 Cleansing Agents

Solutions to In-Text Questions Ex 16.1  to 16.5

Sleeping pills contain drugs and when drugs are taken in doses higher than recommended may cause harmful effects on our body, it may affect the nervous system; also it may lead to person death. Hence, a doctor should always be consulted before taking any medicins.

The given statement refers to the classification of the pharmacological effects of the drug. This is because drugs which are used to counteract(decrease the level of HCl) the effect of excess acid secretion in the stomach is known as an antacid. Ranitidine belongs to the class of histamine receptors blockers, where they block the activity of $H_{2}$ receptors present in the stomach(cause of secretion of gastric acid).

Question

Natural sweeteners like sucrose provide calories to the body. For a diabetic patient, we need artificial sweetener because it does not add any type of calories which affect the diabetic patient But in natural sweetener the amount of fat, carbohydrate, protein is high.  Examples of artificial sweeteners are- Saccharin, aspartame etc.

(i) $(C_{15}H_{31}COO)_{3}C_{3}H_{5}$  – Glyceryl palmitate

(ii) $(C_{17}H_{32}COO)_{3}C_{3}H_{5}$  – Glyceryl oleate

Soaps used for cleaning purpose are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids, e.g., stearic, oleic and palmitic acids.
when glyceryl palmitate reacts with sodium hydroxide it gives glycerol and soap molecules.

(i)

(ii)

The functional group present in the structure is ether and alcohol group.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life- Exercise Questions

Question

We need to classify the drugs in different ways because of-

• Pharmacological effect

This classification provides doctors with the whole range of drugs available for the treatment of a certain type of problem

• Drug action

The action of drugs on a particular biochemical process

• Chemical structure

This classification provides a range of drugs sharing common structural features

• molecular targets

Drugs have some common structural features may have the same mechanism of action on the targets. Hence it is the most useful classification for medicinal chemists

In medicinal chemistry, drug targets are the key molecules, which involved in certain metabolic pathways that result in specific diseases. Drugs mainly interact with biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Drugs are the chemical agents, and they are designed to inhibit these target molecules by binding with the active sites of the key molecules.

Question

The macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets are carbohydrate, lipids, proteins, enzymes and nucleic acid.

Question

Medicines should not be taken without consulting doctors because medicins can bind more than one receptor sites. So, it may be toxic for some receptors site. Also if we take medicine dose higher than recommended then it causes a harmful effect on our body and also leads to person death.

Question

chemotherapy
The use of chemicals for therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy. In other words, it means treatment of disease with the help of chemicals For example the use of chemicals in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases

Forces that are involving in holding the drugs to the active sites of enzymes-

• Ionic bonding

• Hydrogen bonding

• Dipole-dipole interaction

• Van der Waals force

Specific drugs affect the particular receptor site. Both antacids and anti-allergic drugs work on different receptors. So, that's why they do not interfere with each other's functions, but interfere with the function of histamine.

Anti-depressant drugs are used to minimise the effect of depression. These drugs inhibit enzymes catalysing the degradation of the neurotransmitter, noradrenaline. Thus, this neurotransmitter is slowly metabolised and can activate its receptor for longer periods of time. Two antidepressant drugs are Iproniazid and Phenelzine.

The range of bacteria that are affected by certain antibiotics has expressed a spectrum of its action.
Antibiotics which kill/inhibit a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are said to be broad-spectrum antibiotics. Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic.

It can be used for the treatment of typhoid, dysentery, acute fever, pneumonia, and certain types of urinary infection.

Question

Antiseptic and disinfectants are effective against micro-organism. Antiseptics are applied on living tissues such as wound, cuts and diseased skin surfaces. But disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects such as floors, drainage system, instruments etc. Disinfectants are harmful to living tissues.
Examples-, 0.2 per cent solution of phenol is an antiseptic while it is one per cent solution is disinfectant. Iodoform is another antiseptic

Sodium bicarbonate or magnesium or aluminium hydroxide, these antacids work on by neutralising the excess hydrochloric acid present in the stomach. However, the main cause for the release of excess acid remains untreated. cimetidine and ranitidine better antacids as they treat the root cause of acidity. These drugs prevent the interaction of histamine with the receptor present in the stomach walls. This is why cimetidine and ranitidine are better antacids than sodium hydrogen carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminium hydroxide.

Phenol can be used as antiseptic as well as disinfectants. 1 per cent of phenol solution is used as disinfectant while 0.2% of it is used as antiseptic.

Question

The main constituent of dettol is chloroxylenol and terpineol.

Question

Iodine is a powerful antiseptic. Its 2-3 per cent solution in alcohol-water mixture is known as tincture of iodine.

USES-

• It is applied to wounds

Question

FOOD PRESERVATIVES-
Chemicals that prevent food against bacteria, moulds, yeasts etc., are known as food preservatives. For examples- table salt, sugar, vegetable oil, sodium benzoate, and salt os propanoic acid etc.

Question

Aspartame becomes unstable at cooking temperature,  because of that, its use is limited to cold foods and drinks.

Question

Artificial sweetening agents are those chemicals, which are used to sweeten the food. However, unlike natural sweeteners, they don't add calories to our body. They don't harm our body.

Examples-  aspartame, saccharin, sucralose, and alitame.

For a diabetic patient, we use an artificial sweetening agent like saccharine, alitame and aspartame.

Question

Aspartame is a high potency sweetener. It is difficult to control the sweetness of food while using it as a sweetener.

Question

Soaps are only work in soft water, and we do not use them effectively in hard water. But synthetic detergents are used effectively in both hard and soft water. That's why these are better than soaps.

Question

(i)      cationic detergents

Cationic detergents -
These are quarternary ammonium salts of acetates, chlorides or bromides. The long hydrocarbon chain part has a cationic charge, a positive charge on the Nitrogen atom. Hence these are called cationic detergents. Example-  Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

Question

(ii)      anionic detergents and

Anionic detergents-

Anionic detergents are sodium salts of sulfonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons. In these detergents, the anionic part of the detergent is involved in cleansing action. They are mostly used for household work. Anionic detergents are also used in toothpaste.

Example- sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate

Question

(iii)      non-ionic detergents

Non-ionic detergents-
These types of detergents do not have any charges in their constituent. Such detergent is formed when stearic acid reacts with polyethylene glycol.
example-  Liquid dishwashing detergents are non-ionic

Detergents that are degraded by bacteria are called bio-degradable detergents. These type of detergents has a long straight hydrocarbon chain. Ex- sodium lauryl sulphate.

And detergent that cannot be degraded by bacteria or microbes is called non-biodegradable detergent. Such detergent has highly branched hydrocarbon chains. Ex.- Most of the synthetic detergents.

Question

Hard water contains ions of magnesium and calcium. When we add sodium and potassium soaps in hard water these ions form magnesium and calcium insoluble soaps.

These insoluble salts separate as scum. And this is the reason why soap doesn't work in hard water.

Soaps can be used to check wheater water is hard or soft. In hard water soaps get precipitated but not in soft water. However, synthetic detergent can work efficiently in both hard and soft water. Thus synthetic detergent cannot be used to check the hardness of the water.

Question

When we add soap in water, it forms micelle around the dirt particle(oil) in such a way that hydrophobic part of the stearate ion is attached with the dirt and the hydrophilic parts pointing towards away from the dirt. Due to polar in nature, the hydrophilic part of the stearate ion is pulled into the water, thereby removing the dirt from the cloth.

Synthetic detergents are preferred for cleaning cloths. This is because water contains calcium ions, these ions form insoluble salts when we add soap and get precipitated. However, synthetic detergents are working efficiently in both hard and soft water. When we add these detergents in water, these ions form soluble salts that act as cleansing agents.

Question

(i)     $CH_{3}(CH_{2})_{10}CH_{2}OSO_{3}^{-}Na^{+}$

$CH_{3}(CH_{2})_{10}CH_{2}OSO_{3}^{-}Na^{+}$
|__________________| |__________|
hydrophobic part                hydrophilic part

Question

(ii)      $CH_{3}(CH_{2})_{15}N^{+}(CH_{3})_{3}Br^{+}$

$CH_{3}(CH_{2})_{15}N^{+}(CH_{3})_{3}Br^{+}$
|_____________| |_______________|
hydrophobic part     hydrophilic part

Question

(iii)      $CH_{3}(CH_{2})_{16}COO (CH_{2}CH_{2}O)_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}OH$

$CH_{3}(CH_{2})_{16}COO (CH_{2}CH_{2}O)_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}OH$
|_____________| |_________________________________|
hydrophobic                 hydrophilic part
part

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry

 Chapter 1 CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 chapter 1 The Solid State Chapter 2 NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 2 Solutions Chapter 3 Solutions of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 3 Electrochemistry Chapter 4 CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics Chapter 5 Solutions of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 5 Surface chemistry Chapter 6 NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry General Principles and Processes of isolation of elements Chapter 7 CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 7 The P-block elements Chapter 8 Solutions of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 8 The d and f block elements Chapter 9 NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 9 Coordination compounds Chapter 10 Solutions of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Chapter 11 CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers Chapter 12 Solutions of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Chapter 13 NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 13 Amines Chapter 14 CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 14 Biomolecules Chapter 15 Solutions of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 15 Polymers Chapter 16 NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday life

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Subject wise

 Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology NCERT solutions for class 12 maths CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry Solutions of NCERT class 12 physics

Benefits of NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life

• The solutions are written in a comprehensive manner in the NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 16 chemistry in everyday life will help you writing answers in your exam.

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