NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life - As the name suggests this chapter tells the importance of chemistry in our daily life and this is the last chapter of NCERT class 12 chemistry book. In this chapter the solutions of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 16 chemistry in everyday life, you will learn the application of chemistry in three important areas - food materials, medicines, and cleaning agents. You may get stuck while solving exercises of this chapter and this is where CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 16 chemistry in everyday life comes handy. This is an important chapter for both CBSE board exam as well as competitive exams like NEET, JEE Mains, BITSAT etc. In fact, some of the questions of this chapter are asked in various government exams like UPSC and SSC, hence it is important to resolve your doubts by reading NCERT solutions. In this chapter, there are 5 intext questions and 27 questions in the exercise. The NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life has all the answers to the questions that are prepared in order to improve your writing skills in the exams.
After completing the NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 16 chemistry in everyday life, students will be able to understand the importance of chemistry in our daily life, explain the term like chemotherapy, able to describe drugs classification, drug-target interaction (enzymes as drug targets & receptors as drug targets) and explain how different types of drugs function in the body. In this chapter, we will also know about food preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, the chemistry of cleaning agents. You will get all the solutions of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 16 chemistry in everyday life by scrolling down.
Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life, talks about the application of chemistry in three important areas - food materials, medicines(drugs), and cleansing agents(like detergents). Let's briefly discuss each area one-by-one.
- Food additives such as sweetening agents, preservatives, flavours, edible colours, nutritional supplements and antioxidants are added to the food to make it palatable, attractive and also add nutritive values.
- The drugs and medicines are chemical agents, which affects metabolism and provides a cure from the ailment. Drugs or medicines may have some poisonous effects if they are taken in doses higher than recommended. Use of these chemicals for the therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy. Drugs usually interact with the target molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids.
- Now a day, detergents which is a cleansing agent get preference over soaps because detergents work even in the hard water. Synthetic detergents are classified into three categories: cationic, anionic and non-ionic.
Topics and Sub-topics of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life-
16.1 Drugs and their Classification
16.2 Drug-Target Interaction
16.3 Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs
16.4 Chemicals in Food
16.5 Cleansing Agents
Question 16.2 With reference to which classification has the statement, “ranitidine is an antacid” been given?
The given statement refers to the classification of the pharmacological effects of the drug. This is because drugs which are used to counteract(decrease the level of HCl) the effect of excess acid secretion in the stomach is known as an antacid. Ranitidine belongs to the class of histamine receptors blockers, where they block the activity of receptors present in the stomach(cause of secretion of gastric acid).
Question 16.3 Why do we require artificial sweetening agents ?
Natural sweeteners like sucrose provide calories to the body. For a diabetic patient, we need artificial sweetener because it does not add any type of calories which affect the diabetic patient But in natural sweetener the amount of fat, carbohydrate, protein is high. Examples of artificial sweeteners are- Saccharin, aspartame etc.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life- Exercise Questions
Question 16.1 Why do we need to classify drugs in different ways?
We need to classify the drugs in different ways because of-
This classification provides doctors with the whole range of drugs available for the treatment of a certain type of problem
The action of drugs on a particular biochemical process
This classification provides a range of drugs sharing common structural features
Drugs have some common structural features may have the same mechanism of action on the targets. Hence it is the most useful classification for medicinal chemists
Question 16.2 Explain the term, target molecules or drug targets as used in medicinal chemistry.
In medicinal chemistry, drug targets are the key molecules, which involved in certain metabolic pathways that result in specific diseases. Drugs mainly interact with biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Drugs are the chemical agents, and they are designed to inhibit these target molecules by binding with the active sites of the key molecules.
Question 16.4 Why should not medicines be taken without consulting doctors ?
Medicines should not be taken without consulting doctors because medicins can bind more than one receptor sites. So, it may be toxic for some receptors site. Also if we take medicine dose higher than recommended then it causes a harmful effect on our body and also leads to person death.
Question 16.5 Define the term chemotherapy.
The use of chemicals for therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy. In other words, it means treatment of disease with the help of chemicals For example the use of chemicals in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases
Question 16.9 What is meant by the term ‘broad spectrum antibiotics’ ? Explain.
The range of bacteria that are affected by certain antibiotics has expressed a spectrum of its action.
Antibiotics which kill/inhibit a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are said to be broad-spectrum antibiotics. Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic.
It can be used for the treatment of typhoid, dysentery, acute fever, pneumonia, and certain types of urinary infection.
Question 16.10 How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants Give one example of each
Antiseptic and disinfectants are effective against micro-organism. Antiseptics are applied on living tissues such as wound, cuts and diseased skin surfaces. But disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects such as floors, drainage system, instruments etc. Disinfectants are harmful to living tissues.
Examples-, 0.2 per cent solution of phenol is an antiseptic while it is one per cent solution is disinfectant. Iodoform is another antiseptic
Question 16.11 Why are cimetidine and ranitidine better antacids than sodium hydrogencarbonate or magnesium or aluminium hydroxide?
Sodium bicarbonate or magnesium or aluminium hydroxide, these antacids work on by neutralising the excess hydrochloric acid present in the stomach. However, the main cause for the release of excess acid remains untreated. cimetidine and ranitidine better antacids as they treat the root cause of acidity. These drugs prevent the interaction of histamine with the receptor present in the stomach walls. This is why cimetidine and ranitidine are better antacids than sodium hydrogen carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminium hydroxide.
Question 16.15 What are food preservatives ?
Chemicals that prevent food against bacteria, moulds, yeasts etc., are known as food preservatives. For examples- table salt, sugar, vegetable oil, sodium benzoate, and salt os propanoic acid etc.
Question 16.17 What are artificial sweetening agents ? Give two examples.
Artificial sweetening agents are those chemicals, which are used to sweeten the food. However, unlike natural sweeteners, they don't add calories to our body. They don't harm our body.
Examples- aspartame, saccharin, sucralose, and alitame.
Question 16.20 How are synthetic detergents better than soaps ?
Soaps are only work in soft water, and we do not use them effectively in hard water. But synthetic detergents are used effectively in both hard and soft water. That's why these are better than soaps.
Question 16.21(i) Explain the following terms with suitable examples
(i) cationic detergents
Cationic detergents -
These are quarternary ammonium salts of acetates, chlorides or bromides. The long hydrocarbon chain part has a cationic charge, a positive charge on the Nitrogen atom. Hence these are called cationic detergents. Example- Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide
Question 16.21 Explain the following terms with suitable examples
(ii) anionic detergents and
Anionic detergents are sodium salts of sulfonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons. In these detergents, the anionic part of the detergent is involved in cleansing action. They are mostly used for household work. Anionic detergents are also used in toothpaste.
Example- sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate
Question 16.22 What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents ? Give one example of each.
Detergents that are degraded by bacteria are called bio-degradable detergents. These type of detergents has a long straight hydrocarbon chain. Ex- sodium lauryl sulphate.
And detergent that cannot be degraded by bacteria or microbes is called non-biodegradable detergent. Such detergent has highly branched hydrocarbon chains. Ex.- Most of the synthetic detergents.
Question 16.23 Why do soaps not work in hard water ?
Hard water contains ions of magnesium and calcium. When we add sodium and potassium soaps in hard water these ions form magnesium and calcium insoluble soaps.
These insoluble salts separate as scum. And this is the reason why soap doesn't work in hard water.
Question 16.24 Can you use soaps and synthetic detergents to check the hardness of water?
Soaps can be used to check wheater water is hard or soft. In hard water soaps get precipitated but not in soft water. However, synthetic detergent can work efficiently in both hard and soft water. Thus synthetic detergent cannot be used to check the hardness of the water.
Question 16.25 Explain the cleansing action of soaps.
When we add soap in water, it forms micelle around the dirt particle(oil) in such a way that hydrophobic part of the stearate ion is attached with the dirt and the hydrophilic parts pointing towards away from the dirt. Due to polar in nature, the hydrophilic part of the stearate ion is pulled into the water, thereby removing the dirt from the cloth.
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