NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 - Plant Kingdom

 

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom: In this chapter, you are going to study all about those categories which come under the plant kingdom. It includes algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom will make you understand the concepts easily. Algae are chlorophyll-bearing simple, thalloid, autotrophic and largely aquatic organisms. Algae usually reproduce vegetatively by fragmentation, asexually by the formation of different types of spores and sexually by the formation of gametes which may show isogamy, anisogamy or oogamy. NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom carry all the answers which are asked in NCERT book. Bryophytes are plants that can live in soil but are dependent on water for sexual reproduction. You will learn that the bryophytes are divided into liverworts and mosses. If you are looking for an answer from any other chapter even from any other class then go with NCERT Solutions, there you will get all the answers of NCERT easily.

Depending on the type of pigment possessed and the type of stored food, algae are classified into three classes, namely:

  • Chlorophyceae,
  • Phaeophyceae, and
  • Rhodophyceae.

Here are the important topics of CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom given below:

3.1 Algae

    3.1.1 Chlorophyceae

    3.1.2 Phaeophyceae

    3.1.3 Rhodophyceae

3.2 Bryophytes

    3.2.1 Liverworts

    3.2.2 Mosses

3.3 Pteridophytes

3.4 Gymnosperms

3.5 Angiosperms

3.6 Plant Life Cycles and Alternation of Generations

Chapter 3 - Plant Kingdom of NCERT book will also tell you about the gymnosperms and angiosperms. The gymnosperms are the plants in which ovules are not enclosed by an ovary wall. After fertilization, the seeds remain exposed and therefore these plants are called naked-seeded plants. In solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom, you will be getting the solutions to those questions which are asked on the concept of fertilization. 

After going through NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom, you must be able to understand the concept behind all the questions:

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom- Solved Exercise Questions-

Q1. What is the basis of classification of algae?

Answer:

Algae are chlorophyll-containing thallus-bearing plants characterised by the absence of embryo stage. A variety of algae are found in a variety of habitats. The various types of algae are classified on the basis of their pigments, flagellation and the reserve food material. Based on these criteria, algae are of three types i.e. red algae, brown algae and green algae.

Feature 

Chlorophyceae

Phaeophyceae

Rhodophyceae

Pigment

Chlorophyll a and b

Chlorophyll a, c and fucoxanthin

Chlorophyll a, b and phycoerythrine

Reserve food material 

Starch

Mannitol and laminarin 

Floridean starch

Cell wall composition

Cellulose

Cellulose and algin 

Cellulose and pectin 

Flagella

2-8, equal and apical

2, unequal and lateral

Absent 

Q2. When and where does reduction division take place in the life cycle of a liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?

Answer:

In the life cycle of a liverwort reduction division take place in the capsule for the formation of haploid spores that will grow into gametophytic thallus after germination. In mosses, the gametes fertilise and a zygote is formed. The zygote develops into the sporophyte. In the capsule of the sporophyte, reduction division takes place and haploid spores are formed which on germination give rise to gametophytic thallus. In ferns, reduction division takes place in the sporangia present on leaves for the production of spores. Gymnosperms, which have sporophytic plant body show reduction division in their microsporangia and megasporangia for the formation of microspores and megaspores. In the case of angiosperms, the main plant body is diploid and reduction division occurs for the formation of gametes. Therefore, in the life cycle of an angiosperm, reduction division takes place in the anther and ovary at the time of microspore and megaspore formation respectively.

Q4. Mention the ploidy of the following: protonemal cell of a moss; primary endosperm nucleus in dicot, leaf cell of a moss; prothallus cell of a ferm; gemma cell in Marchantia; meristem cell of monocot, ovum of a liverwort, and zygote of a fern.

Answer:

Tissue

Ploidy                                          

Protonemal cell of a moss;

Haploid 

Primary endosperm nucleus in dicot,

Triploid

Leaf cell of a moss

Haploid

Prothallus cell of a fern

Haploid

Gemma cell in Marchantia;

Haploid

Meristem cell of monocot

Diploid

Ovum of a liverwort

Haploid

Zygote of a fern

Diploid

 

Q5. Write a note on economic importance of algae and gymnosperms.

Answer:

Economic importance of algae 

1. Green algae such as Ulva, Caulerpa, Enteromorpha, Chlorella etc are used as food rich in lipid, protein, vitamins, minerals etc.

2. Chlorella and Caulerpa are used to obtain antibiotics also. 

3. A number of green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Scenedesmus etc are used in sewage oxidation tanks. 

Economic importance of Gymnosperms

1. The seeds of Pinus gerardiana are roasted and eaten. 

2. The softwood of gymnosperms is used in the construction of furniture, plywood, packing cases, match sticks, railway sleepers etc. 

3. The wood from Picea, Pinus, Larix and Abies is used in the manufacture of paper. 

4. Pine needles are used to make fibre boards.

5. Resins containing terpenes, resin acids and esters can be obtained from gymnosperms. Resins are used in waterproofing, sealing joints etc.

6. A drug called ephedrine is extracted from Ephedra which is a gymnosperm. This drug is useful in respiratory ailments such as asthma. 

Q6. Both gymnosperms and angiosperms bear seeds, then why are they classified separately?

Answer:

Both gymnosperms and angiosperms come under the group spermatophyta or seed-bearing plants. However, angiosperms and gymnosperms are classified separately in spermatophyta because gymnosperms possess naked seeds i.e. their seeds are not enclosed in ovary whereas angiosperms possess seeds that are enclosed in the ovary. 

Q7. What is heterospory? Briefly comment on its significance. Give two examples.

Answer:

Heterospory- It refers to the existence of two types of meiospores i.e. microspores and megaspores in a single plant. These microspores and megaspores are formed respectively within microsporangia and megasporangia which in turn are borne on two distinct sporophylls called microsporophylls and megasporophylls respectively. The microspores and megaspores upon germination give rise to male and female gametophyte respectively. The megaspore is retained in megasporangia and it ensures proper development of the zygote. which is formed after the fusion of microgametes with the megagametes. The zygote is retained on the plant and it is considered to be a precursor of seed habit. 

Significance of heterospory- Heterospory is considered to be an important step in evolution as it is a precursor of seed habit which is seen in higher plants. Heterospory was first observed in pteridophyte Selaginella and Salvinia

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom:

Q8. Explain briefly the following terms with suitable examples:-

(1) protonema

Answer:

Protonema- It refers to the creeping, green, branched, often filamentous structure which is formed directly after the germination of moss spore. It represents the first stage in the life cycle of moss. Protonema is short-lived and it grows prostrate on the surface. Protonema bears rhizoids for the absorption of materials. 

Q8. Explain briefly the following terms with suitable examples

(2) antheridium

Answer:

Antheridium- It is the male sex organ found in bryophytes, pteridophytes and some algae. Antheridium encloses a mass of cells that give rise to male gametes. Generally, antheridium, remain enclosed by a jacket of sterile cells. 

Q8. Explain briefly the following terms with suitable examples

(3) archegonium

Answer:

Archegonium- It is female sex organ found in bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Based on the presence of archegonium, these three groups are referred to as archegoniate. It generally possesses a swollen venter and a tubular neck. The venter possesses ventral canal cells and neck contains neck canal cells. Archegonium also contains the female gamete which is called egg. 

Q8. Explain briefly the following terms with suitable examples

(4) diplontic

Answer:

Diplontic- This is a term utilised for depicting the life cycle of angiosperms and gymnosperms. In this type of life cycle, the plant body is represented by a diploid plant i.e. sporophyte.  It bears sex organs that produce male and female gamete. The gametophyte is of reduced type and it is dependent on the sporophyte. The male and female gametes fuse and form zygote which develops on the diploid plant. 

Q8. Explain briefly the following terms with suitable examples

(5) sporophyll

Answer:

Sporophylls- These refer to leaf-like appendages bearing sporangia in pteridophytes, gymnosperms etc. Sporophylls can be either microsporophylls or megasporophylls and respectively they can form either microsporangia or megasporangia.

 

Q8.Explain briefly the following terms with suitable examples

(6) isogamy

Answer:

Isogamy- It refers to the process of fertilisation of two gametes which are exactly similar to each other in morphology, physiology, anatomy etc. Such gametes are called isogametes. 

Solutions for NCERT lass 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom:

Q9. Differentiate between the following:-

(i) red algae and brown algae

Answer:

Differences between red algae and brown algae are as follows:

Red algae    

Brown algae

Red algae possess chlorophyll a, d and phycoerythrin 

Brown algae consist of chlorophyll a, c and fucoxanthin

They contain floridean starch as reserve food material

Brown algae contain laminarin and mannitol as reserve food material

Cell walls are composed of cellulose, pectin and phycocolloids

The cell wall is composed of cellulose and algin 

Red algae due to the presence of red pigment phycoerythrin, are grouped under Rhodophyceae

Brown algae due to the presence of fucoxanthin a brown pigment is grouped under Phaeophyceae

Q9. Differentiate between the following:- (ii) liverworts and moss

Answer:

Differences between liverworts and mosses are as follows

Liverworts

Mosses    

Sporophyte has very little photosynthetic tissue, so it is completely parasitic on the gametophyte

Sporophyte contains more photosynthetic tissue                                   

Scales often present

Scales are mostly absent

Gemma cups are present for vegetative reproduction in some liverworts

Gemma cups are mostly absent

Rhizoids are unicellular

Rhizoids are multicellular

The gametophyte is thalloid with dichotomous branching 

The gametophyte is leafy, branching is lateral

Q9. Differentiate between the following:- (iii) homosporous and heterosporous pteridophyte

Answer:

Homosporous pteridophytes

Heterosporous pteridophytes

These pteridophytes produce only a single type of spores, hence are called homosporous pteridophytes

These pteridophytes produce two types of spores i.e. microspores and megaspores. Hence, they are called heterosporous pteridophytes

The produce only a single gametophyte which is bisexual. 

They further form two types of gametophytes i.e microgametophytes and megagametophytes. 

Q9. Differentiate between the following:- (iv) syngamy and triple fusion

Answer:

The differences between syngamy and triple fusion are as follows: 

Syngamy   

Triple fusion

It refers to the fusion of male gamete with female gamete i.e egg cell in angiosperms is called syngamy                                                                          

It refers to the fusion of second male gamete with the 2 polar nuclei of the central cell. Since, in this fusion, 2 polar nuclei and one sperm nuclei fuse, its called triple fusion

The end product is zygote which is a diploid structure 

The end product is the primary endosperm nuclei which are triploid. 

 

Q10. How would you distinguish monocots from dicots?

Answer:

Differences between monocots and dicots are as follows:

Monocots

Dicots     

Monocots possess seeds with a single cotyledon

Dicots bear seeds with two cotyledons

Monocots possess isobilateral leaves

Dicots possess dorsiventral leaves

The flowers of monocots are generally trimerous i.e. the number of sepals, petals, stamens and pistil is in the multiples of three in these plants

The flowers of dicots are pentamerous i.e. the number of sepals, petals, stamens and pistils are in the multiples of five in these plants. 

They have fibrous roots

They have tap roots

Cambium is absent in these plants

Cambium is present in these plants

 

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom:

Q11. Match the following (column I with column II) 
                 Column I                             Column II
            (a) Chlamydomonas                 (i) Moss
            (b) Cycas                                 (ii) Pteridophyte
            (c) Selaginella                         (iii) Algae
            (d) Sphagnum                         (iv) Gymnosperm

 

Answer:

Correct matching is (a)-(iii), (b)-(iv), (c)-(ii), (d)-(i)

  Column I                             Column II
 (a) Chlamydomonas           (iii) Algae
 (b) Cycas                            (iv) Gymnosperm
 (c) Selaginella                     (ii) Pteridophyte
 (d) Sphagnum                      (i) Moss

Q12. Describe the important characteristics of gymnosperms.

Answer:

Important characteristics of gymnosperms

1. Gymnosperms are seed plants in which the seeds remain exposed over the surface of megasporophylls. 

2. Gymnosperms are represented by 900 living species.

3. Gymnosperms are perennial and woody plants (either trees or bushes). The xylem of gymnosperms does not possess vessels except in Gnetum. Phloem is without companion cells and sieve tubes. 

4. Two types of sporophylls occur in gymnosperms. These are microsporophylls and megasporophylls. The microsporophylls aggregate to form male strobili or cone while megasporophylls aggregate to form female strobili or cone. Microsporangia and megasporangia are borne on microsporophylls and megasporophylls respectively. 

4. Microsporangia give rise to microspores or pollen grains whereas megasporangia forms megaspores. The male and female gametophytes are formed within micropores and megaspores. 

5. Female gametophyte contains archegonia. The male gametophyte produces only two male gametes or sperms. 

6. The pollination is direct and is accomplishes by wind i.e. anemophily. A pollen tube is formed in gymnosperms. it is called as siphonogamy.

7. Seeds contain endosperm. 

If you are unable to determine these questions or facing any problem to understand them, then go through the book again and then try to solve all the given questions by yourself and then match it from the CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom, as it will help you to prepare not only for the 12th board exam even also for other competitive exams like NEET.

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology

Chapter 1

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 1 the living world

Chapter 2

Solutions of NCERT for class 11 biology chapter 2 biological classification

Chapter 3

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom

Chapter 4

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 4 animal kingdom

Chapter 5

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants

Chapter 6

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 6 anatomy of flowering plants

Chapter 7

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals

Chapter 8

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 Cell: The Unit of Life

Chapter 9

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules

Chapter 10

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Chapter 11

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants

Chapter 12

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Chapter 13

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Chapter 14

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants

Chapter 15

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development

Chapter 16

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption

Chapter 17

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Chapter 18

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation

Chapter 19

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination

Chapter 20

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 20 locomotion and movement

Chapter 21

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 21 neural control and coordination

Chapter 22

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration

NCERT Solutions for Class 11- Subject wise

NCERT solutions for Class 11 Maths

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Chemistry

CBSE NCERT solutions for Class 11 Physics

What are the benefits of NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom :

  • NCERT is the base of your learning.
  • You will get all the answers to this chapter and it will help you to score good marks in the exam.
  • CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.
  • NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom will also help you in your 12th board exam.
  • It will also boost your knowledge.
 

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