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Answer-  The reaction of fluorine with water-  -----------reduction (O.N of F changes from 0 to -1)    ------------- Oxidation( O.N of O changes from -2 to 0) Fluorine reduced by gaining an electron and water oxidized by losing an electron.
Answer-  It means water molecules can react with each other and form hydronium ion and hydroxide ion. (self-ionization) it indicates its amphoteric nature; means behave as acid as well as the base. the Hydronium Ion - conjugate acid  the hydroxide ion - conjugate base
Answer-  In the gaseous phase water is a bent molecule with a bond angle of 104.5 degree, and O-H bond length of 95.7 pm. It is a highly polar molecule. Hydrogen peroxide has a non-planner structure both in the gas phase and solid phase. The dihedral angle in the gas phase is 115.5 degree and in the solid phase is 90.2 degree. fig-
Answer- increasing order of reducing property-   Na can easily donate electrons so it has a higher reducing property. Both   are covalent hydrides. water has less reducing property because it has high bond dissociation energy than
Answer-   increasing order of bond dissociation enthalpy In F-F high repulsion force is acting so breaking should be easy. while in case of H-H and D-D, bond pair of D-D is more strongly attracted by the nucleus because of the higher nucleus mass in D2. we know that higher the attraction high is the bond strength.
Answer- the increasing order of ionic character - The ionic character can be measured by the electronegativity difference between the atom. we know that down the group electronegativity decreases. Therefore, Cs has most electronegative character then Na then Li.
Answer- increasing order of electrical conductance- electrical conductivity depends on its ionic nature. more is the ionic more is the conductivity. Berrium hydride is covalent in nature so it has least conductivity. Titanium hydride is metallic in nature so it will also conduct. we also know that greater is the size of cation more is the ionic in nature.

9.15  Saline hydrides are known to react with water violently producing fire. Can CO2, a well-known fire extinguisher, be used in this case? Explain.

Answer- The strength of hydrogen bonding depends on the electronegativity of an atom electronegativity order  The expected order should be  But the  actual order is  This is because of the extent of H bonding in a water molecule is more due to the presence of one extra hydrogen atom. Also, Oxygen atom forms a huge ring like structure through its high ability of hydrogen bonding
Answer- Atomic hydrogen can be prepared by dissociation of a bond of dihydrogen with the help of an electric arc. This release a huge amount of energy around 135 kJ/mol and this energy can be used to generate a high temperature of 4000K,  which is desirable for welding and cutting of metals. Therefore, atomic hydrogen or oxy-hydrogen torch are used for welding purpose.
Answer- Metallic hydrides are hydrogen deficient and they don't hold the law of constant composition.it is established that hydrides of nickel, palladium, and Ce have lattice different where hydrogen occupies the interstitial position in the lattices allowing further absorption of hydrogen on these metals. Some of the metals like Pd and Pt accommodate a very large volume of hydrogen and...
Answer- Non-stoichiometric hydrides are hydrogen deficient compounds. they are formed by d & f block elements. Such hydrides do not follow the law of constant composition.  Examples-  etc. Alkali metals do not form these types of hydrides. Alkali metals form stoichiometric hydrides. These hydrides are ionic in nature.
Answer- the general term   for n = 1, 2, 3.. we get   ... Lewis acids are an electron acceptor, So the above compound should be electron deficient species.   taking an example Here we can directly count that both the Carbon atom has perfect 8 electrons in sharing. they follow the octet rule. It is electron precise hydride and it neither donate or accept electrons to act Lewis acid or base
Answer- Electron-deficient hydrides do not have required electrons to form a regular bond in which two electrons are shared by two atoms. e.g.  etc Because of electron deficiency, they have the tendency to accept electrons. hence they act as Lewis acid.
ANswer- (i)Electron-deficient hydrides-  Those compounds having fewer electrons to writing its conventional Lewis structure. examples  (all the elements of group 13 form electron deficient hydrides) (ii)Electron-precise hydrides- Those compounds have the required number of electrons to write their conventional Lewis structure. ex-  (all elements of group 14 form such...
Answer- The ionization enthalpy of the H-H bond is very high (1312kJ/mol). It means hydrogen has less tendency to form  ions. Its ionization enthalpy is comparable to halogens. Hence it forms a diatomic molecule, hydrides with the elements, and a large number of covalent bonds. It does not possess any metallic character like metals