Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen  

What is Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

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Organic compounds containing nitrogen or amines are an important class of organic compounds formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atom of ammonia by alkyl or aryl group. They exist in nature in various forms like proteins, vitamins, hormones, etc. In the form of amino acids, these amines are very important for our body. According to the IUPAC system, the naming of the amines is done by first naming the alkyl group and then add amine in the end, for example, methylamine. Aromatic amines are named as the derivative of the simplest aromatic amine i.e, aniline, for example, 2-Bromoaniline. 

In this chapter, you will study the structures of different types of amines, their preparation, physical properties, chemical reactions, etc. In real life, we see compounds of amines in bulk form but we hardly become inquisitive in their formation and chemical properties. This chapter explains all those questions. Thus in the real world, amines are largely used for many applications as follows:

  • Methylamines are used for making various agricultural products such as herbicides, insecticides, miticides, etc.
  • There are various kinds of amines such as MEA, DEA, DGA, and others are used in industries for removing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide.
  • Aromatic amines are used for the production of dyes.
  • Amines are used in various kinds of drugs such as chlorpheniramine, ephedrine, amitriptyline, etc.

There are various other applications as well for amines which you must read carefully. This article will give you all the information regarding the amines chapter. This will help you to make your strategies in your preparation and it will also guide you in how to prepare for this chapter and the best-prescribed books.

 

Notes for Organic compounds Containing Nitrogen

In this section, you will study about the important topics of the chapter, overview, physical properties, chemical reactions and some important tips and guidelines for the preparation of the chapter at the best.

 

Important Topics - Organic compounds Containing Nitrogen

  • Classification of Amines
  • Nomenclature
  • Preparation of Amines
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Diazonium Salts

 

Overview of the Chapter

In this chapter, there are various important topics that you must understand completely:

Structure of Amines:
In amines, the nitrogen is in sp3 hybridization with 3 sigma bonds and 1 lone pair of electrons. Amines possess the tetrahedral geometry but the bond angle in its structure is always less than 109.50 because nitrogen atom has a lone pair of electrons which reduces its bond angle.
General structure of amines
        General structure of amines

 

Classification of Amines

Amines can be classified into three categories as follows, depending on the number of alkyl or aryl groups attached to the nitrogen atom:

Classification of Amines
                                                        Classification of amines

 

Preparation of Amines:

Amines can be prepared from the following methods:

  • Reduction of Nitro Compounds: In this reaction, the nitro compounds are reduced by the (H2 / Pd) reagent to amines.

       Reduction of Nitro Compounds:

  • Reduction of Nitriles: In this reaction, nitriles are reduced to amines by another equally strong reducing agent i.e (H2 / Ni).

       Reduction of Nitriles

  • Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction: In this reaction, the amide is treated with bromine in the presence of an aqueous solution of NaOH. This reaction converts amide to a primary amine with 1 carbon less than the amide.

          Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction       

 

Physical Properties

  • Lower aliphatic amines are gases with a fishy smell and higher aliphatic amines are liquid.
  • Lower aliphatic amines are soluble in water because of the capability of hydrogen bonding with the water molecules.
  • Amines are soluble in organic solvents as well such as alcohol, ether, and benzene, etc. 
  • The boiling point of amines follows this order below:
    Primary > Secondary> Tertiary
  • Intermolecular interaction of amines is prevalent in primary amines than in secondary amines and this interaction is absent in tertiary amines. 

 

Chemical Reactions

  • Alkylation of amines: In this reaction, amines are reacted with alkyl halides as shown below in fig(). The product formed in this reaction is 10 higher amine.

 

       Alkylation of amines

 

  • Acylation of amines: In this reaction, anhydrides are reacted with amines and the product formed in this reaction is amide.

        Acylation of amines

 

  • Carbylamine reaction: In this reaction, primary amines are reacted with chloroform in the presence of potassium hydroxide and the product formed is isocyanides as shown in the figure given below.

 

        Carbylamine reaction

 

  • Reaction with Nitrous Acid: In this reaction, amines are reacted with nitrous acid and form diazonium salt or alcohol, depending on which type of amine is reacting with nitrous acid.

 

        Reaction with Nitrous Acid

 

How to prepare for Amines?

  • This chapter is part of organic chemistry. It is completely theory-based. You are not supposed to memorize any formula and numerical practice for getting the good hold on this chapter. All you just need to remember is reaction mechanisms and important reactions.

  • For this chapter, first, you must have your basic concepts completely clear that you can learn from the chapter- "Some basic principles of Organic Chemistry". For this, you must go through Unit 12 of the NCERT book 11th class part II thoroughly.

  • In the nutshell, it can be said that although this chapter is lengthier than other chapters, it is a very simple and straightforward one. So always say a "Big YES" to this chapter.

 

Prescribed Books

For this chapter, first, the NCERT book is best for initial level preparation as well as for board exams. Now, after this, if you want to prepare for competitive exams like JEE and NEET, then these are the best books for you - Morrison and Boyd and R.K Gupta by Arihant publication. Meanwhile, in the preparation, you must continuously give the mock tests for the depth of knowledge. Our platform will help you to provide with the variety of questions for deeper knowledge with the help of videos, articles and mock tests.

 

Chemistry Chapter- wise Notes for Engineering and Medical Exams

Chapters No.

Chapters Name

Chapter 1

Some basic concepts in chemistry

Chapter 2

States of matter

Chapter 3

Atomic Structure

Chapter 4

Solutions

Chapter 5

Chemical Thermodynamics

Chapter 6

Equilibrium

Chapter 7

Redox Reaction and Electrochemistry

Chapter 8

Chemical kinetics

Chapter 9

Surface Chemistry

Chapter 10

General Principle and processes of Isolation of metals

Chapter 11

Classification of Elements and Periodic table

Chapter 12 

Hydrogen

Chapter 13

p- block Elements

Chapter 14 

s-block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Chapter 15 

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Chapter 16

d- and f- BLOCK ELEMENTS

Chapter 17

Coordination Compounds

Chapter  18 

Environmental Chemistry

Chapter 19

Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds

Chapter 20

Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry

Chapter 21

Hydrocarbons

Chapter 22

Organic Compounds containing Halogens

Chapter 23

Organic Compounds containing Oxygen

Chapter 25

Polymers

Chapter 26

Biomolecules

Chapter 27

Chemistry in Everyday Life

Chapter 28

Principles Related to Practical Chemistry

Topics from Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

  • Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character. ( JEE Main ) (15 concepts)
  • General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses ( JEE Main ) (41 concepts)
  • Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry ( JEE Main ) (8 concepts)

Important Books for Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

  • Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Book
  • Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Book
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