# NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 6 Life Processes: How do you tell the difference between what is alive and what is not alive? Chapter 6 of class 10 deals with this major question and explains what life processes are. So it is only right that solutions of NCERT class 10 science chapter 6 life processes give the answers to all questions asked therein. Some topics covered in this chapter are what is life processes, detailed explanations on nutrition, respiration, transportation, excretion to name a few. Learning would be easier if you have the CBSE NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 6 life processes within reach. Each topic has sub topics dealing with what nutrition or respiration is, why it is a life process and types if any. Scoring marks will be easy if you have on hand the NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 6 life processes and know how to answer the questions asked in the school and board exams. Check the solutions of NCERT for class 10 science chapter 6 - life processes below. You can also check out the  solutions of NCERT for other chapters in science or even other subjects by using the given links on this page. Have a doubt? Ask our experts by posting the questions and get the CBSE NCERT solutions immediately.

Types of questions asked from chapter 6 life processes board exams:

CBSE Class 10 science board exam will have the following types of questions:

• Practical based questions

NCERT class 10 science chapter 10 (life processes) - weightage in board exams
Do you know that questions worth around 12 to 15 marks are asked in the board exams from the class 10 science chapter 6 life processes? This makes the chapter a very important one and this is where the CBSE NCERT solutions for class 10 science life processes can help. If you know how to answer these questions, then you can answer those 5 to 7 questions asked from this chapter including two practical based questions and add to your score in the crucial board exams.

Solutions of NCERT for class 10 science chapter 6 life processes topic 6.1 What are life processes:

Multicellular Organisms have complex systems each assigned to a specific task. These systems comprise of tissues which comprise of millions of cells which require a continous supply of oxygen to meet the functional requirements and since all these cells are not in contact with the environment around the organism diffusion is insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms.

The presence of a cellular structure and processes like respiration, excretion, reproduction and growth are criteria  we use to decide whether something is alive or not. In some cases, movement can also be the criteria for the same.

The outside raw materials used by an organism are:

1. Carbon-based compounds e.g. carbohydrates, fats etc. which provide energy for the cellular processes.

2. Water. It is the medium for all intracellular reactions and the medium in which all of the transportation of materials take place.

3. Oxygen which is used for aerobic respiration.

4. Some other minerals are also taken from outside as raw materials like iron, sodium, phosphorus etc.

Processes which are essential for maintaining life are respiration, nutrition, transportation, excretion and control and co-ordination.

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 6 life processes topic 6.2 Nutrition:

The differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition are given below:

 Autotrophic Nutrition Heterotrophic Nutrition (i) Food or source of energy is synthesized by the organism itself by using the energy from sunlight using simpe molecules like H2O and CO2 . (i) The organism is dependent on other organisms for food or source of energy as Heterotrophic organisms cannot prepare their own food. (ii) A green pigment called chlorophyll is necessary as it entraps the energy from sunlight. (ii) No such pigment is required in this mode of nutrition. (iii) All green plants and bacteria have this mode of nutrition, (iii) All animals and some fungii have this mode of nutrition.

The plants require a number of raw materials and energy for photosynthesis.

(i) Plants acquire CO2 from the atmosphere using their stomata.

(ii) Plants absorb H2O from the soil using their roots.

(iii) The energy required for photosynthesis is obtained from sunlight.

(iv) Chlorophyll is present in chloroplast which is found in the green parts of the plants but especially in the leaves.

The Hydrochloric acid present in our stomach has 3 main roles.

(i) It dissolves bits of food which have been chewed.

(ii) Provides acidic medium which is essential for the activation of the enzyme pepsin which is essential for digestion.

(iii) The acid kills bacteria present in the stomach.

The food we eat consists of very complex molecules which directly cannot be used for taking up energy and therefore these molecules have to be broken down into simple molecules.

The process of breaking down of these molecules is a very complex chemical process and requires very long time and this is where the digestive enzymes come in. They act as bio-catalysts and speed up the chemical reactions involving the breakdown of these molecules so that they can be absorbed by the cells and energy can be derived from them.

The design of the small intestine is such that it provides the maximum area for the absorption of digested food and its transportation to different parts of our body through blood vessels.

For these purposes the inner lining of small intestine has finger like projections called villi providing a large surface area for absorption and the small intestine is supplied richly with blood vessels for the efficient transportation of the absorbed food.

NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 6 life processes topic 6.3 Respiration:

Terresttrial organisms breathe in Oxygen for respiration directly from the environment as opposed to the aquatic organisms who have to use oxygen dissolved in water.

The concentration of dissolved oxygen in water is much lesser than that present in the air and therefore aquatic organisms have to have a much faster breathing rate than terrestrial organisms for the sufficient supply of oxygen.

In the course of evolution aquatic organisms have also developed special body parts for the efficient absorption of oxygen dissolved in water.

First the glucose is broken down into a 3 Carbon molecule called Pyruvate in the cytoplasm of the cell in a process called Glycolysis.

The process can further proceed using three different pathways depending on the amount of oxygen present.

• In the presence of sufficient Oxygen, Pyruvate molecules are broken down into Water and Carbon dioxide and Energy is released. This process is called aerobic respiration.

• In the lack of oxygen, Pyruvate molecules are converted into lactic acid and energy is released. This takes place in our muscles especially while exercising. The lactic acid thus produced causes cramps in our muscles.

• In the total absence of Oxygen Pyruvate molecules are broken down into Ethanol and Carbon dioxide and Energy is released. This process is called anaerobicrespirationand takes place in yeast cells.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings

(i) The transportation of Oxygen from the lungs to other body parts takes place through our blood vessels. Oxygen has low water solubillity and therefore cannot be transported directly in plasma. The red blood cells contain a pigment called Haemoglobin with which the Oxygen molecules stick once they are absorbed through our lungs. These red blood cells carry the oxygen to the oxygen-deficient parts and then release it to be used for respiration.

(ii) Carbon dioxide is the by product of respiration abd has to be eliminated from our bodies. Due to its high solubility in water it is directly transported from various body parts to the lungs through the plasma of our blood only and is released in the environment by exhaling.

The air passages in our lungs dived into several smaller passages called bronchi.

These bronchi further divide into even smaller passages called bronchiloes which terminate into very small baloon like structures called Alveoli. Each lung consists some million alveolis as they are very small in size.

These alveoli have very soft lining optimum for absorption of Oxygen through vessels and their large number provide a very large surface area for the absorption of oxygen.

Solutions of NCERT for class 10 science chapter 6 life processes topic 6.4 Transportation:

The transport/circulatory system in human beings consist of the following three parts:

(i) Blood: The blood is the medium for transportation of all kinds of materials like oxygen, carbon dioxide, digested food and waste material from one part of the body to the other.

(ii) Blood Vessels: The intricate network of blood vessels consisting of arteries, veins and capillaries run through the entire body and the transportation of materials like oxygen, carbon dioxide, digested food and waste material from one part of the body to the other takes place through the blood vessels only.

(iii) Heart: The heart pumps the blood through the blood vessels. Deoxygenated blood containing Carbon dioxide reaches the heart from different parts of the body and is pumped to the lungs through veins for releasing carbon dioxide and absorption of oxygen. Oxygen-rich blood reaches the heart from the lungs and is pumped through arteries to the tissues and organs where oxygen is required.

Mammals and birds continously require oxygen in all body parts so that aerobic respiration could take place so that heat is continously generated to maintain the body temperature required.

To efficiently facilitate this process it is necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds.

In highly organised plants the transport system consists of the following two components.

(i) Xylem: The xylem consists of a network of vessels and elongated cells called tracheids. The xylem tissues transport the water and other minerals absorbed from the soil by the roots to different parts of the plant.

(ii) Phloem: The Phloem tissue transports the soluble organic compounds (food) synthesized during photosynthesis from the leaves to other parts of the plant.

The roots of a plant have hair-like structures called root hair. The root hair provides large area for the absorption of water and other dissolved minerals from the soil into the roots through diffusion.

The absorbed water and minerals travel from cell to cell by osmosis reach the root xylem. From the root xylem this are transported into the stem xylem. The branched xylem network from the stem raches every part of the leaves through the stalk of the leaf and through this network of xylem tissue water and minerals transported in plants.

The transportation of food material in plants take place through the phloem tissue. This transportation of food material in plants require energy which is obtained by using ATP. This release of energy causes a difference rise in the the osmotic pressure in the tissues sorrounding the phloem and causes water to move in the phloem tissue through osmosis.

This further increases the osmotic pressure in the phloem and drives the circulation of water containing food material to all parts of the plant through the phloem tissue.

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 6 life processes topic 6.5 Excretion:

The nephrons are the basic filtering unit of our excretion system.

Each nephron has a Bowman's capsule which is a cup shaped bag having a bundle of vessels called glomerulus. Impure blood from all parts of our body enters the glomerulus through the renal artery and the impurities are filtered, The rest of the nephron is coiled and there sugars, amino acids, excess water etc. which are important for the body are re absorbed. The filtrate left is urine containing all the waste generated in body e.g. urea. This urine is excreted through the urethra.

$Structure\ of\ a\ nephron$

The following methods are used by plants to get rid of excretory products.

(i) Gaseous wastes are released in the atmosphere through the stmata in leaves and lenticels in stems.

(ii) Solid and liquid wastes are excreted by leaves shedding, barks pealing off and through fruits.

(iii) Waste products are excreted by releasing them through gums and resins.

(iv) Some waste products are directly released into the soil by the roots

The amount of urine produced depends on the following:

(i) Amount of water ingested. If large amount of water is ingested regularly large amounts of dillute urine will be produced. In case sufficient water is not ingested urine produced will be less in amount but will have high concentration of nitrogenous wastes and this is harmful for the excretory system and the body.

(ii) Amount of waste produced in the body decides how much urine is to be excreted.

(iii) The release of some hormones also regulate the amount of urine produced.

NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 6 life processes Exercise:

(a) nutrition.                                        (c) excretion.

(b) respiration.                                    (d) transportation.

The kidneys in human beings are a part of the system for excretion.

(a) transport of water.                         (c) transport of amino acids.

(b) transport of food.                           (d) transport of oxygen.

The xylem in plants are responsible for transport of water.

(a) carbon dioxide and water.                 (c) sunlight.

(b) chlorophyll.                                        (d) all of the above.

The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires all of the above.

(a) cytoplasm.                                             (c) chloroplast.

(b) mitochondria.                                         (d) nucleus.

The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in mitochondria.

Digestion of fat takes place in the small intestine. Fat reaches the small intestine in the form of large globules.

The liver releases bile juice which emulsifies the fat i.e. it breaks down the large globules into smaller globules thus increasing the are on which pancreatic juice called lipase acts and breaks down the globules into molecules.

The small intestine then releases juices which convert these fat molecules into fatty acids and glycerol which can be used by the body.

Saliva contains an enzyme called salivary amylase that starts the process of digestion in the mouth itself by breaking down startch into sugar molecules like maltose.

Saliva helps in keeping the mouth clean, moistend and lubricated thus aiding in chewing of food so that large pieces are broken down into small bits.

The necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition the following:

(i) Supply of carbon dioxide which is the raw material for this mode of nutrition.

(ii) Presence of sunlight which is the source of energy.

(iii) Presence of chlorophyll in the leaves which entraps the energy from sunlight.

(iv) Supply of water.

The byproduct of autotrophic nutrition is Oxygen.

Differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration are mentioned below:

 Aerobic Respiration Anerobic Respiration (i) It takes place in presence of Oxygen. (i) It takes place in absence of Oxygen. (ii) It involves exchange of gases between organism and surroundings. (ii) It does not involve exchange of gases between organism and surroundings (iii) The end products are always Carbon dioxide and water. (iii) The end products vary. (iv) Complete breakdown of glucose molecules take place. (iv) Partial breakdown of glucose molecules take place. (v) More energy is produced per molecule of glucose broken down. (v) Less energy is produced per molecule of glucose broken down. (vi) Takes place in cytoplasm and mitochondria. (vi) Takes place only in cytoplasm.

Anaerobic respiration takes place in some worms, water logged plants, yeast and some bacteria.

The alveoli are thin walled and are richly supplied with blood vessels to maximise the exchange of gases.

The alveoli have baloon like structure thus providing a large surface area available for the exchange of gases.

As the function of Haemoglobin is to transport oxygen from the lungs to all other parts of the body its defficiency would cause levels of Oxygen to be lesser than the required level thus rendering the body incapable of producing required amount of energy and thus would make person feel tired most of the times and would also affect his immunity thus making him susceptible to diseases.

Deoxygenated blood rich in carbon dioxide and deficient in oxygen reaches the heart through a networl of veins and enters the heart through the vena cava and is brought into the right atrium. From the right atrium the deoxygenated blood goes to the right ventricle from where it is pumped to the lungs through pulmonary artery where carbon dioxide is released into the environment and oxygen is absorbed in the blood. From the lungs the oxygenated blood enters the left atrium through the pulmonary vein. From the left atrium the blood enters the left ventricle from where it is pumped to all parts of the body to facilitate the supply of oxygen.

This double circulation in human beings helps maintain high oxygen levels in blood which facilitates sufficien aerobic respiration for the generation of sufficient heat to maintain the body temperature.

 Xylem Phloem (i) In Xylem water and minerals absorbed from the soil by the roots are transported to other parts of the plant. (i) In Phloem food synthesized through photosynthesis is transported from the leaves to othe parts of the plant. (ii) In Xylem transport of material takes place through vessels and tracheids which are dead tissue. (ii) In Phloem transport of material takes place through sieve tubes and companion cells which are living cells. (iii) In xylem upward movement of water is produced by transpirational pull occuring due to evaporation of water from the leaves (iii) In Phloem material is transported due to the difference in osmotic pressure created using energy from ATP.

 Alveoli Nephron (i) Alveoli is the functional unit of the lungs. (ii) Nephron is the functional unit of the Kidneys. (ii) A lung has about 300 million alveoli. (ii) A kidney has about a million nephrons. (iii) Alveoli provides a very large surface for the exchange of gaseous materials to take place. (iii) The Surface are of Nephrons is not very large. (iv) The exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place through alveoli. (iv) The absorption of water, amino acids, sugar molecules etc. take place in the Nephron.

 Chapter No. Chapter Name Chapter 1 NCERT solutions for class 10 chapter 1 science Chemical Reactions and Equations Chapter 2 Solutions of NCERT for class 10 science chapter 2 Acids Bases and Salts Chapter 3 CBSE NCERT solutions for class 10 chapter 3 science Metals and Non-metals Chapter 4 Solutions of NCERT for class 10 science chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds Chapter 5 NCERT solutions for class 10 chapter 5 of science Periodic Classification of Elements Chapter 6 Solutions of NCERT for class 10 science chapter 6 Life Processes Chapter 7 NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 7 Control and Coordination Chapter 8 CBSE NCERT solutions for class 10 chapter 8 How do Organisms Reproduce Chapter 9 Solutions of NCERT for class 10 science chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution Chapter 10 CBSE NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction Chapter 11 Solutions of NCERT for class 10 science chapter 11 The Human Eye and The Colorful World Chapter 12 NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 12 Electricity Chapter 13 CBSE Solutions of NCERT for class 10 science chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current Chapter 14 NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 14 Sources of Energy Chapter 15 Solutions of NCERT for class 10 science chapter 15 Our Environment Chapter 16 CBSE NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

## Solutions of NCERT class 10 - subject wise

How to use NCERT Solutions for class 10 science chapter 6 life processes?

• Now that you know the solutions of NCERT class 10 science chapter 6 life processes and have understood the topics well, its time to put them to practice
• Check previous year questions from the board exam and see if you can apply the CBSE NCERT solutions of class 10 to them and know your preparation levels.
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