NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation: According to a survey, more than 1.5 million species have been recorded in the world, but there might be nearly 6 million species on earth that are waiting to be discovered and named which is a very big thing. The total sum of diversity that exists at all levels of biological organization is referred to be as biodiversity. In solutions for NCERT class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation, you will get questions from the diversity of species. Of the named species, more than 70 per cent are animals, out of which maximum are insects. The interesting thing which you will learn is that the group Fungi has more species than all the other vertebrate species. NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation describe such facts in detail. If you are looking for the answers of any other class from 6-12 then NCERT solutions are there for you.
CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation have all the answers of topic wise questions which are asked in the middle of the chapter. Species diversity on earth is not uniformly distributed but shows interesting patterns. In this chapter you will also learn species richness which is also a function of the area of a region; the species-area relationship is generally a rectangular hyperbolic function.
Here are the important topics of NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation:
15.1.1 How Many Species are there on Earth and How Many in India?
15.1.2 Patterns of Biodiversity
15.1.3 The importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem
15.1.4 Loss of Biodiversity
15.2 Biodiversity Conservation
15.2.1 Why Should We Conserve Biodiversity?
15.2.2 How do we conserve Biodiversity?
Solutions for NCERT class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation have given detailed explanation to each answer of the exercise. Biodiversity conservation are of two types, it can be in situ as well as ex-situ. In in-situ conservation is that conservation in which the endangered species are protected in their natural habitat so that the entire ecosystem can be protected. Where as, Ex situ conservation methods include protective maintenance of threatened species in zoological parks and botanical gardens, in vitro fertilization, tissue culture propagation and cryopreservation of gametes.
After going through the CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation, you will be able to understand all the answers and the questions mentioned below:
NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation: Solved Exercise Questions:
Q2. How do ecologists estimate the total number of species present in the world?
In order to estimate the number of species present on earth, ecologists statistically compare species richness of well-studied group of insects of tropical and temperate regions and these ratios are extrapolated with other groups of plants and animals to estimate the species richness found on Earth. As per estimates, about 7 million species are present on Earth.
Q3. Give three hypotheses for explaining why tropics show greatest levels of species richness.
Tropics show the greatest level of species richness due to the following reasons (hypotheses)
1. The climate of tropical areas is more stable as compared to temperate areas. So the local populations, continuously live in the absence of natural disturbances.
2. Tropical communities are highly productive and can support a wide range of other species. This is mainly because tropics receive more solar energy.
3. In tropics, there is warm temperature and high humidity. Such conditions are favourable for a number of varieties of fungi, plants and algae.
Q6. How is biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning?
Importance of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning
1. Biodiversity is important for maintaining stability, productivity, resilience, alternative pathways and overall health of a particular ecosystem.
2. A scientist named David Tilman confirmed that higher the biodiversity higher will be the productivity of the ecosystem as more plants are there to photosynthesize and more decomposers are there to recycle the waste of the ecosystem. He also proved that if biodiversity of an area is high than a year to year variation in total biomass will be lesser contributing to the overall stability of an ecosystem.
3. Rich biodiversity provides resilience against natural as well as man-made disturbances.
4. To clarify the importance of rich biodiversity on ecosystem functioning, River Popper hypothesis was proposed by Paul Ehrlich. He cited that the way in an aeroplane all parts are joined by thousands of rivets, in an ecosystem all components are joined by species. As more and more rivets are removed the parts of aeroplane disassemble. Similarly, as species are removed the functioning of the ecosystem also gets affected.
Q7. What are sacred groves? What is their role in conservation?
Sacred groves are the traditionally protected patches of forests around places of worship where local tribal communities actively participate to protect these regions and do not allow to cut even a single branch of the tree because of religious reasons. Sacred groves in India are found in Western Ghats of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Khasi and Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, Aravali hills in Rajasthan and Sarguja, Chanda and Bastar areas of Madhya Pradesh.
Role of sacred groves on the conservation of biodiversity
1. Sacred groves help in the protection of a number of rare, endangered and endemic species.
2. In these regions, deforestation is strictly prohibited and thus they are biodiversity-rich areas.
Q8. Among the ecosystem services are control of floods and soil erosion. How is this achieved by the biotic components of the ecosystem?
Ecosystem services refer to good or benefits that we get from the ecosystem. Prevention of soil erosion and floods comes under benefits provided by the ecosystem to us. The ecosystem includes both abiotic and biotic components. The biotic components are the living organisms present in an ecosystem. Biotic components play a role in providing ecosystem services. some of these roles are as follows:
1. The roots of plants hold the soil particles very tightly. This prevents the erosion or degradation of the top layer of soil
2. Plants increase soil fertility and biodiversity.
3. Presence of plants also help in controlling the flow of floods and lead to minimal destructions.
4. roots of plants make the soil porous thus allowing water to seep in the soil.
5. The carbon dioxide and oxygen balance are maintained in the ecosystem via plants and animals.
Q10. Can you think of a situation where we deliberately want to make a species extinct? How would you justify it?
Yes, some harmful pathogens i.e. disease-causing organisms with little or no role in the ecosystem can be made to get extinct. Their extinction will not lead to any effect on the ecological balance. These pathogens may include smallpox virus etc, Poliovirus is about to get eradicated. There are efforts to make this world free from diseases such as TB, AIDA, Malaria etc. Since the microorganisms causing these disease have no role to play in the environment, they can be made to get eradicated.
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- CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.
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