NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation

 

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation: According to a survey, more than 1.5 million species have been recorded in the world, but there might be nearly 6 million species on earth that are waiting to be discovered and named which is a very big thing. The total sum of diversity that exists at all levels of biological organization is refer to be as biodiversity. In solutions for NCERT class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation you will get questions from the diversity of species. Of the named species, more than 70 percent are animals, out of which maximum are insects. The interesting thing which you will learn is that, the group Fungi has more species than all the other vertebrate species. NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation describe such facts in detail. If you are looking for the answers of any other class from 6-12 then NCERT solutions are there for you.

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation have all the answers of topic wise questions which are asked in the middle of the chapter. Species diversity on earth is not uniformly distributed but shows interesting patterns. In this chapter you will also learn species richness which is also a function of the area of a region; the species-area relationship is generally a rectangular hyperbolic function.

Here are the important topics of NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation:

15.1 Biodiversity

    15.1.1 How Many Species are there on Earth and How Many in India?

    15.1.2 Patterns of Biodiversity

    15.1.3 The importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem

    15.1.4 Loss of Biodiversity

15.2 Biodiversity Conservation

    15.2.1 Why Should We Conserve Biodiversity?

    15.2.2 How do we conserve Biodiversity?

Solutions for NCERT class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation have given detailed explanation to each answer of the exercise. Biodiversity conservation are of two types, it can be in situ as well as ex-situ. In in-situ conservation is that conservation in which the endangered species are protected in their natural habitat so that the entire ecosystem can be protected. Where as, Ex situ conservation methods include protective maintenance of threatened species in zoological parks and botanical gardens, in vitro fertilization, tissue culture propagation and cryopreservation of gametes.

After going through the CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation, you will be able to understand all the answers and the questions mentioned below:

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation: Solved Exercise Questions:

Q1. Name the three important components of biodiversity.

Answer:

Biodiversity refers to the vast variety present among the various life forms. The three components of biodiversity are 

1. Genetic diversity-

2. Species diversity 

3. Ecosystem diversity

Q2. How do ecologists estimate the total number of species present in the world?

Answer:

In order to estimate the number of species present on earth, ecologists statistically compare species richness of well-studied group of insects of tropical and temperate regions and these ratios are extrapolated with other groups of plants and animals to estimate the species richness found on Earth. As per estimates, about 7 million species are present on Earth.

Q3. Give three hypotheses for explaining why tropics show greatest levels of species richness.

Answer:

Tropics show the greatest level of species richness due to the following reasons (hypotheses)

1. The climate of tropical areas is more stable as compared to temperate areas. So the local populations, continuously live in the absence of natural disturbances.

2. Tropical communities are highly productive and can support a wide range of other species. This is mainly because tropics receive more solar energy. 

3. In tropics, there is warm temperature and high humidity. Such conditions are favourable for a number of varieties of fungi, plants and algae.

Q4. What is the significance of the slope of regression in a species – area relationship?

Answer:

The slope of regression has a major role in determining the species-area relationship. In smaller areas slope of regression is similar regardless of the taxonomic group or region. On the other hands, in case of larger areas, curve us steeper. Biodiversity also increases from higher to lower altitudes.

Q5. What are the major causes of species losses in a geographical region?

Answer:

The major causes of species losses in a geographical region are as follows;

1. Habitat loss and fragmentation 

2. Over-exploitation

3. Alien species invasion\

4. Co-extinction

Q6. How is biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning?

Answer:

Importance of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning

1. Biodiversity is important for maintaining stability, productivity, resilience, alternative pathways and overall health of a particular ecosystem.

2. A scientist named David Tilman confirmed that higher the biodiversity higher will be the productivity of the ecosystem as more plants are there to photosynthesize and more decomposers are there to recycle the waste of the ecosystem. He also proved that if biodiversity of an area is high than a year to year variation in total biomass will be lesser contributing to the overall stability of an ecosystem.

3. Rich biodiversity provides resilience against natural as well as man-made disturbances.

4. To clarify the importance of rich biodiversity on ecosystem functioning, River Popper hypothesis was proposed by Paul Ehrlich. He cited that the way in an aeroplane all parts are joined by thousands of rivets, in an ecosystem all components are joined by species. As more and more rivets are removed the parts of aeroplane disassemble. Similarly, as species are removed the functioning of the ecosystem also gets affected.

Q7. What are sacred groves? What is their role in conservation?

Answer:

Sacred groves are the traditionally protected patches of forests around places of worship where local tribal communities actively participate to protect these regions and do not allow to cut even a single branch of the tree because of religious reasons. Sacred groves in India are found in Western Ghats of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Khasi and Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, Aravali hills in Rajasthan and Sarguja, Chanda and Bastar areas of Madhya Pradesh.

Role of sacred groves on the conservation of biodiversity

1. Sacred groves help in the protection of a number of rare, endangered and endemic species.

2. In these regions, deforestation is strictly prohibited and thus they are biodiversity-rich areas.

Q8. Among the ecosystem services are control of floods and soil erosion. How is this achieved by the biotic components of the ecosystem?

Answer:

Ecosystem services refer to good or benefits that we get from the ecosystem. Prevention of soil erosion and floods comes under benefits provided by the ecosystem to us. The ecosystem includes both abiotic and biotic components. The biotic components are the living organisms present in an ecosystem. Biotic components play a role in providing ecosystem services. some of these roles are as follows:

1. The roots of plants hold the soil particles very tightly. This prevents the erosion or degradation of the top layer of soil

2. Plants increase soil fertility and biodiversity.

3. Presence of plants also help in controlling the flow of floods and lead to minimal destructions. 

4. roots of plants make the soil porous thus allowing water to seep in the soil.

5. The carbon dioxide and oxygen balance are maintained in the ecosystem via plants and animals.

Q9. The species diversity of plants (22 per cent) is much less than that of animals (72 per cent). What could be the explanations to how animals achieved greater diversification?

Answer:

Animals have achieved greater diversification than animals due to following reasons:

1. Animals possess a nervous system to receive stimuli and show a response against them. 

2. Animals are motile and they can avoid competition thus leading to greater diversification.

3. Animals are subjected to less seasonal variations as compared to plants. 

Plants are fixed and they require more evolutionary adaptations in order to obtain their requirements of water, minerals, sunlight, avoiding of herbivory etc. Thus, there is higher diversity among animals than plants.

Q10. Can you think of a situation where we deliberately want to make a species extinct? How would you justify it?

Answer:

Yes, some harmful pathogens i.e. disease-causing organisms with little or no role in the ecosystem can be made to get extinct. Their extinction will not lead to any effect on the ecological balance. These pathogens may include smallpox virus etc, Poliovirus is about to get eradicated. There are efforts to make this world free from diseases such as TB, AIDA, Malaria etc. Since the microorganisms causing these disease have no role to play in the environment, they can be made to get eradicated.

And if still confused or need help in these questions then, NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation is there for you.

Also, try to attempt all the given questions in NCERT, and in case, if you have any doubt then refer to NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation. There you will get all the answers to this chapter and it will help you to score good marks not only in 12th board exam as well as also in other competitive exams like NEET.

NCERT Solutions class 12 – Biology

Chapter 1

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 1 Reproduction in organisms

Chapter 2

Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Chapter 3

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 3 Human Reproduction

Chapter 4

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Chapter 5

Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Chapter 6

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 6 Molecular basis of inheritance

Chapter 7

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 7 Evolution

Chapter 8

Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 8 Human health and disease

Chapter 9 

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Chapter 10

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare

Chapter 11

Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 11 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Chapter 12

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter 13

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 13 Organisms and Populations

Chapter 14

Solutions of NCERT class 12 biology chapter 14 Ecosystem

Chapter 15

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 16

NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 16 Environmental Issues

NCERT Solutions for Class 12- Subject wise

Solutions for NCERT Class 12 Maths

CBSE NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry

NCERT solutions for  Class 12 Biology

Solutions for NCERT Class 12 Physics

And if still, you have any doubt or problem in getting the correct answers then CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation will help you. But don't forget to try at least once, so that you can answer those questions by yourself then check your answers with the help of solutions for NCERT class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation. 

Why you should use NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation: 

  • NCERT is the base of your learning.
  • You will get all the answers to this chapter and it will help you to score good marks in the exam.
  • CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.
  • NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 15 biodiversity and conservation will also help you in your 12th board exam.
  • It will also boost your knowledge.
 

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