NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 Structural Organisation in Animals

 

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals: You may be surprised to know that all complex animals consist of only four basic types of tissues. Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals contain interesting answers which comprise of an excellent explanation of all the questions which are based on animals and their structural organisation. These tissues are organized in specific proportions and patterns to form an organ like heart, stomach, lung, and kidney. When two or more organs perform a common function by their physical and/or chemical interaction, they together form the organ system, e.g., digestive system, respiratory system and related question you will get in CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals. In multicellular animals, a group of similar cells along with intercellular substances perform a specific function. Such an organization is called tissue. If you are looking for an answer from any other chapter even from any other class then go with NCERT Solutions, there you will get all the answers of NCERT easily.

Here, the important topics of CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals are mentioned below:

7.1 Animal Tissues

7.1.1 Epithelial Tissue

7.1.2 Connective Tissue

7.1.3 Muscle Tissue

7.1.4 Neural Tissue

7.2 Organ and Organ System

7.3 Earthworm

7.3.1 Morphology

7.3.2 Anatomy

7.4 Cockroach

7.4.1 Morphology

7.4.2 Anatomy

7.5 Frogs

7.5.1 Morphology

7.5.2 Anatomy

In this chapter, you will study about earthworm, cockroach and frog, as they show characteristic features in body organization. In Pheretima Posthuma (earthworm), their body is covered by a cuticle. You will get to know that the segments of its body are alike except the 14th, 15th and 16th segment, which are thick and dark and glandular, forming clitellum. Likewise, you need to study in deep about cockroach and frog as well, as it's important on the perspective of the preparation of NEET exam and NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals will help you in this.

After going through solutions of NCERT for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals, you must be able to understand the answer of the following questions which are given below:

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 Structural Organisation in Animals - Solved Exercise Questions-

Q1. Answer in one word or one line

(i).Give the common name of Periplaneta americana.

Answer:

The common name of Periplaneta americana is cockroach. 

Q1. Answer in one word or one line

(ii) How many spermathecae are found in earthworm?

Answer:

Four pairs of spermathecae are found in the earthworm. These are found to be located between the sixth and the ninth segments. The function of spermathecae is to receive and store the spermatozoa during copulation.

Q1. Answer in one word or one line

(iii) What is the position of ovaries in cockroach?

Answer:

The pair of ovaries is located between 12th and 13th abdominal segments in the cockroach.

Q1. Answer in one word or one line

(iv) How many segments are present in the abdomen of cockroach?

Answer:

In total, 10 segments are present in the abdomen of cockroach whether male or female. 

Q1. Answer in one word or one line

(v) Where do you find Malpighian tubules?

Answer:

Malpighian tubules are the major excretory organs of cockroaches. These form a part of the alimentary canal. 

Q2. Answer the following

(i) What is the function of nephridia?

Answer:

Nephridia are the excretory organs of earthworm. They are involved in the functions of excretion and osmoregulation in the earthworm. 

Q2. Answer the following

(ii) How many types of nephridia are found in earthworm based on their location?

Answer:

On the basis of location, nephridia can be of three types i.e. septal nephridia, integumentary nephridia and pharyngeal nephridia. 

1. Septal nephridia: These nephridia are found to be present on both sides of the intersegmental septa behind the 15th segment. They open into the intestines. 

2. Integumentary nephridia: These nephridia lie attached to the body wall from the third segment to the last segment, which opens on the body surface.

3.  Pharyngeal nephridia: These nephridia are found to be are present in fourth, fifth. and sixth segments.

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals:

Q3. Draw a labelled diagram of the reproductive organs of an earthworm.

Answer:

Reproductive organs of an earthworm 

Reproductive organs of an earthworm

 

Q4. Draw a labelled diagram of alimentary canal of a cockroach.

Answer:

The alimentary canal of a cockroach

 

Alimentary canal

 

Q5. Distinguish between the followings

(a) Prostomium and peristomium

Answer:

Prostomium 

Peristomium

The prostomium is the fleshy lobe which overhangs the mouth of an earthworm

Peristomium is the first segment of the body of the earthworm

It helps  the earthworm push into the soil and is sensory in function

It surrounds the opening of the mouth 

Q5. Distinguish between the followings

(b) Septal nephridium and pharyngeal nephridium

Answer:

Septal nephridium

Pharyngeal nephridium

These nephridia are found in the 15th segment attached to the septa.

Pharyngeal nephridia are found to be present in the 4th, 5th and 6th segments lying on the sides of the gut.

These remove metabolic wastes from the blood and coelomic fluid 

These remove metabolic wastes from the blood only. 

Q6. What are the cellular components of blood?

Answer:

Blood is the fluid connective tissue. It consists of blood plasma and cellular components. The cellular components of blood are of following types. 

1. Erythrocytes- These are red blood cells. Erythrocytes are red due to the presence of haemoglobin. Erythrocytes are biconcave, coloured cells devoid of a nucleus. These mainly help in transporting respiratory gases.

2. Leucocytes- These are white blood cells. There are 5 types of leucocytes i.e. neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Leucocytes are mainly involved in fighting infections and providing immunity. 

3. Thrombocytes- These are blood platelets involved in the coagulation of blood. 

Q7. What are the following and where do you find them in animal body.

(a) Chondriocyte

Answer:

Chondriocytes- These are cells of cartilages. They are found to be present in the small cavities within the matrix secreted by them.

Q7. What are the following and where do you find them in animal body.

(b) Axon

Answer:

Axons- An axon is the long, slender projection found in the neuron. It helps in carrying nerve impulses from the neuron body.

Q7.What are the following and where do you find them in animal body

(c) Ciliated epithelium

Answer:

Ciliated epithelium- The ciliated epithelium consists of cells which bear fine, vibratile cytoplasmic processes called cilia on its free surface. It is found in the inner lining of bronchioles, urinary tubules of kidneys, nasal passage, oviducts and ventricles of the brain.

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals:

Q8. Describe various types of epithelial tissues with the help of labelled diagrams.

Answer:

Epithelial tissue provides covering or lining for some parts of the body. It consists of a layer of cells and a basement membrane. The cells of epithelium are compactly packed without intercellular space. 

(a) Simple epithelium: It is the single layer of cells which are in direct contact with the basement membrane. Simple epithelium is further subdivided into the following types:

(i) Simple squamous epithelium: It consists of a single layer of flat cells with irregular boundaries. Simple squamous epithelium is mostly found in the walls of the blood vessels and in the lining of alveoli.

(ii) Simple cuboidal epithelium: It consists of a single layer of cube-like cells and is present in regions where secretion and absorption of substances take place such as the proximal convoluted tubule region of the nephron.

(iii) Simple columnar epithelium: This epithelium is formed by a single layer of tall, slender cells with their nuclei present at the base of the cells. These generally possess microvilli on the free surfaces. Columnar epithelium forms the lining of the stomach and intestines. The major function of simple columnar epithelium is secretion and absorption. 

(iv) Ciliated epithelium: It consists of columnar or cuboidal cells with cilia on their free surfaces. They are present in bronchioles and oviducts from where they direct mucus and eggs in specific directions.

(v) Glandular epithelium: These are columnar or cuboidal cells involved in the secretion of substances. Glands are of two types, unicellular glands (goblet cells of the alimentary canal) and multicellular glands (salivary glands). They can be classified as exocrine (ductless glands) and endocrine glands (duct glands) based on the method through which they release enzymes.

(b) Compound epithelium: When the simple epithelium is consists of many layers of cells, it is called compound epithelium. The compound epithelium is involved mainly in the function of providing protection and has a limited role in secretion and absorption. Examples of compound epithelium include the dry surface of the skin or moist inner lining of the buccal cavity, pharynx, pancreatic ducts, and the inner lining of ducts of salivary glands.

Simple epithelium

Compound epithilium

              Compound epithelium   

 

Q9. Distinguish between

(a) Simple epithelium and compound epithelium

Answer:

Simple epithelium 

Compound epithelium 

It consists of one layer of epithelial cells

It consists of several layers of epithelial cells

The function of simple epithelium is absorption and secretion 

The major function of compound epithelium is protection 

Q9. Distinguish between

(b) Cardiac muscle and striated muscle

Answer:

Cardiac muscle

Striated muscle

Cardiac muscles are multinucleate and branched

Striated muscles are multinucleate and unbranched

These are involuntary 

These are voluntary

These are found in the heart

These are found in limbs 

Q9. Distinguish between

(c) Dense regular and dense irregular connective tissue

Answer:

Dense regular connective tissue

Dense irregular connective tissue 

In this tissue, collagen fibres are present in a regular manner

In this tissue, collagen fibres are found irregularly 

These are found in tendons and ligaments

These are found in the skin. 

Q9. Distinguish between

(d) Adipose and blood tissue

Answer:

Adipose tissue 

Blood               

It is present beneath the skin

It is present in the blood vessels

It helps in the synthesis, storage and metabolism of fats

It helps in the transportation of food, water, gases and hormones

It is composed of collagen, elastin, fibroblasts, macrophages etc. 

It consists of RBCs, WBCs, platelets and blood plasma

Q9. Distinguish between

(e) Simple gland and compound gland

Answer:

Simple gland    

Compound gland

These are unicellular

These are multicellular

These possess isolated glandular cells

These type of glands are composed of secretory cells

Q10. Mark the odd one in each series:

(a) Areolar tissue; blood; neuron; tendon

Answer:

Areolar tissue, blood and tendons are types of connective tissue whereas neuron is nervous tissue. Thus, neuron is odd one out.

Q10. Mark the odd one in each series:

(b) RBC; WBC; platelets; cartilage

Answer:

RBS, WBC and platelets are cellular components of blood while cartilage is specialised connective tissue. Thus, cartilage is the odd one out in the series.

Q10. Mark the odd one in each series:

(c) Exocrine; endocrine; salivary gland; ligament

Answer:

Exocrine, endocrine and salivary glands are simple glandular epithelium. However, ligaments represent connective tissue, thus, the ligament is the odd one out in the series.

Q10. Mark the odd one in each series:

(d) Maxilla; mandible; labrum; antennae

Answer:

Maxilla, mandible, and labrum are the names of mouthparts of a cockroach. On the other hand, antennae, are regions present the head. Hence, antennae are odd one out. 

Q10. Mark the odd one in each series:

(e) Protonema; mesothorax; metathorax; coxa

Answer:

Protonema is the young stage in the life cycle of moss. On the other hand, mesothorax, metathorax, and coxa are parts or segments present in the legs of a cockroach. Thus, protonema is the odd one out. 

Q11. Match the terms in column I with those in column II:

 Column I                                      Column II
(a) Compound epithelium          (i) Alimentary canal
(b) Compound eye                    (ii) Cockroach
(c) Septal nephridia                  (iii) Skin
(d) Open circulatory system     (iv) Mosaic vision
(e) Typhlosole                           (v) Earthworm
(f) Osteocytes                           (vi) Phallomere
(g) Genitalia                              (vii) Bone

Answer:

a- iii, b-iv, c-v, d-ii, e-i, f-vii, g-vi 

Column I                                      Column II
(a) Compound epithelium          (iii) Skin
(b) Compound eye                     (iv) Mosaic vision
(c) Septal nephridia                    (v) Earthworm
(d) Open circulatory system        (ii) Cockroach
(e) Typhlosole                             (i) Alimentary canal
(f) Osteocytes                              (vii) Bone
(g) Genitalia                                 (vi) Phallomere

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals:

Q12. Mention briefly about the circulatory system of earthworm.

Answer:

The circulatory system of the earthworm is closed type as the blood flows in fine closed blood vessels. It includes blood, blood vessels, heart and anterior loops and blood glands.

1. Blood-  A coloured respiratory pigment haemoglobin is found to be present in the plasma. Due to this, the colour of the plasma is red. In the blood, only one type of blood corpuscles, the leucocytes are present in the blood of the earthworm. 

2. Blood vessels- the blood vessels found in earthworm are as follows:

Dorsal blood vessel- These extend from one end of the body to the other. The blood flows in this vessel from behind to forward on the dorsal side of the alimentary canal. The dorsal blood vessel has valves which prevent the backward flow of blood. 

Ventral blood vessel- These extend from the one end to the other end of the body. It does not have any valves and flow of the blood is from the anterior to the posterior end of the body. It is the major distributing vessel. 

Sub-neural blood vessel- It runs from the posterior end of the body up to the 14th segment in front. It collects blood from the body wall and nerve cord. This blood is then sent to the dorsal blood vessel through commissural vessels.

Lateral oesophageal vessel- These are the paired blood vessels lying one on either ventrolateral side of the alimentary canal between the body wall and the alimentary canal in the first 14th segment. 

Supra-oesophageal blood vessel- It is a single vessel which lies on the dorsal side of the alimentary canal between the 9th and 13th segment. It receives blood from the lateral oesophageal through two pairs of anterior loops and pours into two pairs of latero-oesophageal hearts present in the 12th and 13th segments. 

Hearts and anterior loops- In earthworm, four pairs of tubular hearts which are provided with valves. The anterior two pairs of the heart are known as the lateral heart and they lie in the 7th and 9th segment. They receive blood from the dorsal blood vessel and convey it to the ventral blood vessel. The posterior two pairs of hearts are situated in the 12th and 13th segments. These carry blood from the dorsal blood vessel and supra oesophageal vessel to ventral blood vessel. Two pairs of anterior loops are present in 10th and 11th segments. 

3. Blood glands- These are situated in the 4th, 5th and 6th segments and produce blood corpuscles and haemoglobin. 

Q13. Draw a neat diagram of digestive system of frog.

Answer:

The digestive system of frog

 

Q14. Mention the function of the following

(a)Ureters in frog

Answer:

 Ureters in frog- A ureter acts as a urinogenital duct, which carries sperms along with urine in male frogs.

Q14. Mention the function of the following

(b) Malpighian tubule

Answer:

Malpighian tubules- These are the excretory organs in the earthworm. 

Q14. Mention the function of the following

(c) Body wall in earthworm

Answer:

Body wall in earthworm- Body wall helps the earthworm in movement and burrowing. 

Also, try to answer solve all the questions (by your own) given in chapter 7 - structural organisation in animals of NCERT, as NCERT is the base of your educational knowledge. Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organization in animals in Animals will not only help you in preparation for your school exams but even it will also help you in the preparation of other competitive exams like NEET.

NCERT Solutions for class 11 Biology

Chapter 1

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 1 the living world

Chapter 2

Solutions of NCERT for class 11 biology chapter 2 biological classification

Chapter 3

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 3 plant kingdom

Chapter 4

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 4 animal kingdom

Chapter 5

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 5 morphology of flowering plants

Chapter 6

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 6 anatomy of flowering plants

Chapter 7

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals

Chapter 8

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 Cell: The Unit of Life

Chapter 9

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules

Chapter 10

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Chapter 11

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants

Chapter 12

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Chapter 13

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Chapter 14

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants

Chapter 15

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development

Chapter 16

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption

Chapter 17

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Chapter 18

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation

Chapter 19

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 19 excretory products and their elimination

Chapter 20

Solutions for NCERT class 11 biology chapter 20 locomotion and movement

Chapter 21

CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 21 neural control and coordination

Chapter 22

NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 chemical coordination and integration

NCERT Solutions for Class 11- Subject wise

NCERT solutions for Class 11 Maths

Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Chemistry

CBSE NCERT solutions for Class 11 Physics

What are the benefits of NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals :

  • NCERT is the base of your learning.
  • You will get all the answers to this chapter and it will help you to score good marks in the exam.
  • CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.
  • It will also boost your knowledge.
  • NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 7 structural organisation in animals will also help you in your 12th board exam.
 

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