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What is Dosage Compensation?

Option: 1

Regulation of gene expression in response to dosage imbalances

Option: 2

A process that eliminates extra copies of genes

Option: 3

A mechanism to ensure equal expression of X-linked genes in males and females

Option: 4

An epigenetic modification that silences genes

Answers (1)


Dosage compensation is a process by which organisms equalize the expression of genes located on sex chromosomes, particularly the X chromosome, to account for the difference in gene dosage between males and females. In mammals, females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. To ensure that males and females have equal levels of gene expression, one of the two X chromosomes in female cells is randomly inactivated during early embryonic development, forming a Barr body. The inactivated X chromosome is then condensed and silenced, effectively reducing the gene dosage to match that of males.

Dosage compensation is important because many X-linked genes play critical roles in development and other physiological processes. Without dosage compensation, females would produce twice as much of the products of X-linked genes as males, leading to potential imbalances in gene expression and developmental abnormalities.

Option 3 is the correct answe.r 

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