NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

 

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes: Biotechnology deals with techniques of using live organisms or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes useful to humans. In this sense, making curd, bread or wine, which are all microbe-mediated processes, could also be thought as a form of biotechnology. However, it is used in a restricted sense today, to refer to such of those processes which use genetically modified organisms to achieve the same on a larger scale. Further, many other processes/techniques are also included under biotechnology. For example, in vitro fertilisation leading to a ‘test-tube’ baby, synthesizing a gene and using it, developing a DNA vaccine or correcting a defective gene, are all part of biotechnology. As Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes is a very interesting chapter. In this, you will study different processes of biotechnology.

Here are the important topics of Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes are given below:

11.1 Principles of Biotechnology

11.2 Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology

    11.2.1 Restriction Enzymes

    11.2.2 Cloning Vectors

    11.2.3 Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA)

11.3 Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

    11.3.1 Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA)

    11.3.2 Cutting of DNA at Specific Locations

    11.3.3 Amplification of Gene of Interest using PCR

    11.3.4 Insertion of Recombinant DNA into the Host Cell/Organism

    11.3.5 Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product

    11.3.6 Downstream Processing

In NCERT Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes, you will also study about recombinant DNA technology. Biotechnology deals with large scale production and marketing of products and processes using live organisms, cells or enzymes. Modern biotechnology using genetically modified organisms was made possible only when man learnt to alter the chemistry of DNA and construct recombinant DNA. This key process is called recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering. This process involves the use of restriction endonucleases, DNA ligase, appropriate plasmid or viral vectors to isolate and ferry the foreign DNA into host organisms, expression of the foreign gene, purification of the gene product, i.e., the functional protein and finally making a suitable formulation for marketing. Large scale production involves use of bioreactors.

After going through NCERT Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes you must be able to explain the answer of the questions given below:

  • Q1. Make a chart (with diagrammatic representation) showing a restriction enzyme, the substrate DNA on which it acts, the site at which it cuts DNA and the product it produces.
  • Q2. From what you have learnt, can you tell whether enzymes are bigger or DNA is bigger in molecular size? How did you know?
  • Q3. Do eukaryotic cells have restriction endonucleases? Justify your answer.

If you have any doubt in answering these questions then, NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes will help you.

Try to solve all the questions mentioned in the NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes. If you find any problem in answering them by yourself then, Solutions of NCERT for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes because NCERT is the base not only for 12th board exam even also for other competitive exams like NEET.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes - Solved Exercise Questions

NCERT Solutions class 12 – Biology

Chapter 1

Reproduction in organisms

Chapter 2

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Chapter 3

Human Reproduction

Chapter 4

Reproductive Health

Chapter 5

Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Chapter 6

Molecular basis of inheritance

Chapter 7

Evolution

Chapter 8

Human health and disease

Chapter 9

Strategies for enhancement in food production

Chapter 10

Microbes in Human Welfare

Chapter 12

Biotechnology and its applications

Chapter 13

Organisms and Populations

Chapter 14

Ecosystem

Chapter 15

Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 16

Environmental Issues

NCERT Solutions for Class 12- Subject wise

NCERT solutions for Class 12 Maths

NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry

NCERT solutions for  Class 12 Biology

NCERT solutions for Class 12 Physics

 

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