Does hybridisation only takes place in excited state ??

 

Answers (1)

 

Hybridization can take place in the ground state? Yes. Ammonia and water molecules are examples.

The electronic configuration of nitrogen in the ground state is 1s2, 2s2, 2px1, 2py1, 2pz1

Since there are three unpaired electrons (2px1, 2py1, 2pz1), valency of nitrogen is 3 (without excitation); and on combining with hydrogen, it forms ammonia, NH3.

But to explain the pyramidal shape of NH3 molecule, you have to assume sp3 hybridization, taking all the four orbitals in the second shell (2s2, 2px1, 2py1, 2pz1). Then one of the four sp3-hybrid orbitals is occupied by the lone electron pair (from 2s2).

The electronic configuration of oxygen in the ground state is 1s2, 2s2, 2px2, 2py1, 2pz1

Since there are two unpaired electrons (2py1, 2pz1), valency of oxygen is 2 (without excitation); and on combining with hydrogen, it forms water, H2O.

But to explain the ‘V’ shape of H2O molecule, you have to assume sp3 hybridization, taking all the four orbitals in the second shell (2s2, 2px2, 2py1, 2pz1). Then two of the four sp3-hybrid orbitals are occupied by lone electron pairs (from 2s2 and 2px2).

So if the ground state valency is okay, no excitation is required for hybridisation.

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