Why PCl6 negative form, because phosphorus can show 5 covalency only?

Answers (1)

Nitrogen belongs to the second period so it has only s and p opticals in its valence shell.so N can show maximum covalency of 4 and that too it losses its lone pair of e-s so,N do not form Penta halides on the other hand ,P belongs to period 3 and has vacant D orbitals so it can exhibit covalency of 5 or 6 ,it can from pertahallides or Hexahalides. Phosphorus has 5 covalent bond and one co-ordinate Bond. Therefore phosphorus maximum covalency of 6.

Elements which have vacant d-orbital can expand their octet by transferring electrons, which arise after unpairing, to these vacant d-orbital e.g. in sulphur.

In excited state sulphur has six unpaired electrons and shows a valency of six e.g. in SF6

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