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A battery of emf 10 V and internal resistance 3 Ω is connected to a resistor. If the current in the circuit is 0.5 A, what is the resistance of the resistor? What is the terminal voltage of the battery when the circuit is closed?

3.2 A battery of emf 10 V and internal resistance 3 Ω is connected to a resistor. If the current in the circuit is 0.5 A, what is the resistance of the resistor? What is the terminal voltage of the battery when the circuit is closed?

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Given,

Emf of the battery, E = 10 V

The internal resistance of the battery, r = 3 \Omega

Current in the circuit, I = 0.5 A

Let R be the resistance of the resistor.

Therefore, according to Ohm's law:

E = IR' = I(R + r) 

10 = 0.5(R + 3)

R = 20 - 3 = 17 \Omega

Also,

V = IR (Across the resistor)

= 0.5 x 17 = 8.5 V

Hence, terminal voltage across the resistor = 8.5 V

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