7.1 Discuss the general characteristics of Group 15 elements with reference to their electronic configuration, oxidation state, atomic size, ionisation enthalpy and electronegativity.
(a) The general electronic configuration of 15th group elements is ns2 np3. The number of valence electrons present is 5.
(b) Oxidation state:- Since the number of valence electrons is 5 so it needs 3 more electrons to complete the octet. Thus the general oxidation state is +3 and +5.
(c) Atomic size:- As a general trend, on moving down the group atomic size increases due to the increase in the number of shells.
(d) Ionisation enthalpy and electronegativity:- Due to the increase in size ionisation enthalpy as well as electronegativity decreases as we move down the group.