8.3     Explain briefly how +2 state becomes more and more stable in the first half of the first row transition elements  with increasing atomic number?

Answers (1)
M manish

According to our observation, except scandium, all other elements of the first row shows +2 oxidation state. On moving from Sc to Mn the atomic number increases from 21 to 25 and also the increasing number of electrons in 3d orbitals from d^{1} - d^{5}. when metals lose two electrons from its 4s orbital then they achieve +2 oxidation state. Since the number of d electrons in (+2) state increases from Ti(+2) - Mn(+2) , the stability of the +2 oxidation state increases as d-orbitals is becoming more and more half filled.

Mn(+2) has d^{5} configuration, which is half filled (it makes it highly stable)

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