4. Explain the Law of Dominance using a monohybrid cross.
According to Mendel’s law of dominance. traits are controlled by two different forms of the same gene. These alternative forms of a gene are called alleles. Among the two alleles, one is dominant while the other one is recessive. The dominant allele suppresses the expression of the recessive allele. Therefore whenever the two alleles are present together, the dominant one masks the expression of the recessive allele. However, it doesn't mean that the recessive allele has lost its existence. It remains hidden in F1 generation and reappears in the next generation. A monohybrid cross is given below.
In this cross, it can be seen that in F1 generation only tall plants were seen, no plant was dwarf. However in the F2 generation, the F1 progeny was self crossed, three genotypes were observed, among these, the hybrids were showing the dominant trait.