9.3     Explain with two examples each of the following: coordination entity, ligand, coordination number, coordination polyhedron, homoleptic and heteroleptic.

Answers (1)

(i) Coordination entity:-   It is an electrically charged species carrying either a positive charge or a negative charge. In a coordination entity, the central atom or ion is surrounded by some number of neutral molecules or negative ions ( called ligands) accordingly.

                        E.g\ \left [ PtCl_4 \right ]^{2-}\ and\ \left [ Ag(CN)_2 \right ]^{-}

(ii) Ligand:- Ligands are the neutral molecules or negatively charged ions that surround the metal atom in a coordination entity according to the holding capacity of central metal ion are known as ligands. NH3  and  H2O are two neutral ligands.

(iii) Coordination number:-  The total number of metals that surrounds the central metal ion is known as coordination number. 

        For e.g,(a) In case of \left [ PtCl_6 \right ]^{2-}six chlorine atoms are attached to Pt, thus the coordination number of the given compound is 6.

                   (b) In case of \left [ Ni(NH_3)_4 \right ]^{2-} the central metal ion Ni is surrounded by 4 atoms of ligand so its coordination number is 4.

(iv)  Coordination polyhedron:-  It is defined as the spatial arrangement of the ligands which are directly attached to the central metal ion/atom.

                                                 E.g.  square planar,  tetrahedral.

(v) Homoleptic:-  Homoleptic compounds are defined as the compounds in which the donor/ligand attached to central metal atom/ion is of one kind.

                                E.g.   \left [ PtCl_6 \right ]^{2-}  and   \left [ Ni(NH_3)_4 \right ]^{2-}

(vi) Heteroleptic:-  These are the coordination compounds in which central atoms are attached with more than one type of ligand.

                                    E.g.   \left [ Co(NH_3)_5Cl \right ]^{2+}      and   \left [ Co(NH_3)_4 Cl_2\right ]^{+1}

 

 

 

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