# 9.  Find the shortest distance between lines $\overrightarrow{r}=6\widehat{i}+2\widehat{j}+2\widehat{k}+\lambda (\widehat{i}-2\widehat{j}-2\widehat{k})$ and $\overrightarrow{r}=-4\widehat{i}-\widehat{k}+\mu(3\widehat{i}-2\widehat{j}-2\widehat{k})$.

Given lines are;

$\overrightarrow{r}=6\widehat{i}+2\widehat{j}+2\widehat{k}+\lambda (\widehat{i}-2\widehat{j}-2\widehat{k})$  and

$\overrightarrow{r}=-4\widehat{i}-\widehat{k}+\mu(3\widehat{i}-2\widehat{j}-2\widehat{k})$

So, we can find the shortest distance between two lines $\vec{r} = \vec{a_{1}}+\lambda \vec{b_{1}}$ and $\vec{r} = \vec{a_{1}}+\lambda \vec{b_{1}}$ by the formula,

$d = \left | \frac{(\vec{b_{1}}\times\vec{b_{2}}).(\vec{a_{2}}-\vec{a_{1}})}{\left | \vec{b_{1}}\times\vec{b_{2}} \right |} \right |$                                               ...........................(1)

Now, we have from the comparisons of the given equations of lines.

$\vec{a_{1}} = 6\widehat{i}+2\widehat{j}+2\widehat{k}$     $\vec{b_{1}} = \widehat{i}-2\widehat{j}+2\widehat{k}$

$\vec{a_{2}} = -4\widehat{i}-\widehat{k}$             $\vec{b_{2}} = 3\widehat{i}-2\widehat{j}-2\widehat{k}$

So, $\vec{a_{2}} -\vec{a_{1}} = (-4\widehat{i}-\widehat{k}) -(6\widehat{i}+2\widehat{j}+2\widehat{k}) = -10\widehat{i}-2\widehat{j}-3\widehat{k}$

and $\Rightarrow \vec{b_{1}}\times \vec{b_{2}} = \begin{vmatrix} \widehat{i} &\widehat{j} &\widehat{k} \\ 1 &-2 &2 \\ 3& -2 &-2 \end{vmatrix} = (4+4)\widehat{i}-(-2-6)\widehat{j}+(-2+6)\widehat{k}$

$=8\widehat{i}+8\widehat{j}+4\widehat{k}$

$\therefore \left | \vec{b_{1}}\times \vec{b_{2}} \right | = \sqrt{8^2+8^2+4^2} =12$

$(\vec{b_{1}}\times \vec{b_{2}}).(\vec{a_{2}}-\vec{a_{1}}) = (8\widehat{i}+8\widehat{j}+4\widehat{k}).(-10\widehat{i}-2\widehat{j}-3\widehat{k}) = -80-16-12 =-108$Now, substituting all values in equation (3) we get,

$d = | \frac{-108}{12}| = 9$

Hence the shortest distance between the two given lines is 9 units.

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