# 13  In the following cases, determine whether the given planes are parallel or perpendicular, and in case they are neither, find the angles between them.   (d)     2x – y + 3z – 1 = 0 and 2x – y + 3z + 3 = 0

D Divya Prakash Singh

Two planes

$L_{1}:a_{1}x+b_{1}y+c_{1}z = 0$ whose direction ratios are $a_{1},b_{1},c_{1}$ and $L_{2}:a_{2}x+b_{2}y+c_{2}z = 0$ whose direction ratios are $a_{2},b_{2},c_{2}$,

are said to Parallel:

If, $\frac{a_{1}}{a_{2}} = \frac{b_{1}}{b_{2}}=\frac{c_{1}}{c_{2}}$

and Perpendicular:

If, $a_{1}a_{2}+b_{1}b_{2}+c_{1}c_{2} = 0$

And the angle between $L_{1}\ and\ L_{2}$ is given by the relation,

$A = \cos^{-1}\left | \frac{a_{1}a_{2}+b_{1}b_{2}+c_{1}c_{2}}{\sqrt{a_{1}^2+b_{1}^2+c_{1}^2}.\sqrt{a_{2}^2+b_{2}^2+c_{2}^2}} \right |$
So, given two planes  $2x - y + 3z -1 = 0\ and\ 2x -y +3z + 3 = 0$

Here,

$a_{1} = 2,b_{1} = -1, c_{1} = 3$   and   $a_{2} = 2,b_{2} = -1, c_{2} = 3$

So, applying each condition to check:

Parallel check:   $\frac{a_{1}}{a_{2}} = \frac{b_{1}}{b_{2}}=\frac{c_{1}}{c_{2}}$

$\Rightarrow \frac{a_{1}}{a_{2}} =\frac{2}{2}=1, \frac{b_{1}}{b_{2}}=\frac{-1}{-1} =1,\frac{c_{1}}{c_{2}} = \frac{3}{3} = 1$

Therefore $\frac{a_{1}}{a_{2}} = \frac{b_{1}}{b_{2}} = \frac{c_{1}}{c_{2}}$

Thus, the given planes are parallel to each other.

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