23) Prove that the volume of the largest cone that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius r is 8/27  of the volume of the sphere.

Answers (1)
G Gautam harsolia


Volume of cone (V) = \frac{1}{3}\pi R^2h
Volume of sphere with radius r = \frac{4}{3}\pi r^3
By pythagoras  theorem in \Delta ADC we ca say that
OD^2 = r^2 - R^2 \\ OD = \sqrt{r^2 - R^2}\\ h = AD = r + OD = r + \sqrt{r^2 - R^2}
V = \frac{1}{3}\pi R^2 (r + \sqrt{r^2+R^2})\\ = \frac{1}{3}\pi R^2r + \frac{1}{3}\pi R^2 \sqrt{r^2+R^2}
\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2 (r + \sqrt{r^2-R^2})\\ V^{'}(R)= \frac{2}{3}\pi Rr + \frac{2}{3}\pi R \sqrt{r^2-R^2}+\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2.\frac{-2R}{2\sqrt{r^2-R^2}}\\ V^{'}(R) = 0\\ \frac{1}{3}\pi R \left ( 2r + 2\sqrt{r^2-R^2} - \frac{R^2}{\sqrt{r^2-R^2}} \right ) = 0\\ \frac{1}{3}\pi R \left ( \frac{2r\sqrt{r^2-R^2} + 2r^2-2R^2 -R^2}{\sqrt{r^2-R^2}} \right ) = 0\\ R \neq 0 \ So, \\ 2r\sqrt{r^2-R^2} = 3R^2 - 2r^2\\ Square \ both \ sides\\ 4r^4-4r^2R^2 = 9R^4 + 4r^4 - 12R^2r^2\\ 9R^4-8R^2r^2 = 0\\ R^2(9R^2-8r^2) = 0\\ R \neq 0 \ So, 9R^2 = 8r^2\\ R = \frac{2\sqrt2r}{3}
Now,
V^{''}(R)= \frac{2}{3}\pi r + \frac{2}{3}\pi \sqrt{r^2-R^2}+\frac{2}{3}\pi R.\frac{-2R}{2\sqrt{r^2-R^2}}-\frac{3\pi R^2}{\sqrt{r^2-R^2}} - \frac{(-1)(-2R)}{(r^2+R^2)\frac{3}{2}}\\ V^{''}(\frac{2\sqrt2r}{3}) < 0
Hence, point R = \frac{2\sqrt2r}{3} is the point of maxima
h = r + \sqrt{r^2-R^2} = r + \sqrt{r^2-\frac{8r^2}{9}} = r + \frac{r}{3} = \frac{4r}{3}
Hence, the altitude of the right circular cone of maximum volume that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius r is  \frac{4r}{3}
Volume = = \frac{1}{3}\pi R^2h = \frac{1}{3}\pi \frac{8r^2}{9}.\frac{4r}{3} = \frac{8}{27}.\frac{4}{3}\pi r^3 = \frac{8}{27}\times \ volume \ of \ sphere
Hence proved
 

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