# Q. 8 Show that the relation R in the set $A = \{1, 2, 3, 4, 5\}$ given by $R = \{(a, b) : |a - b| \;is\;even\}$, is an equivalence relation. Show that all the elements of $\{1, 3, 5\}$ are related to each other and all the elements of $\{2, 4\}$are related to each other. But no element of $\{1, 3, 5\}$ is related to any element of $\{2, 4\}$.

$A = \{1, 2, 3, 4, 5\}$

$R = \{(a, b) : |a - b| \;is\;even\}$

$R=\left \{ \left ( 1,1 \right ),\left ( 2,2 \right ),\left ( 3,3 \right ),\left ( 4,4 \right ),\left ( 5,5 \right ),\left ( 1,3 \right ),\left ( 2,4 \right ),\left ( 3,5 \right ),\left ( 3,1 \right ),\left ( 5,1 \right ),\left ( 4,2 \right ),\left ( 5,3 \right )\right \}$

Let there be $a\in A$ then $(a,a)\in R$ as $\left | a-a \right |=0$  which is even number. Hence, it is reflexive

Let  $(a,b)\in R$ where $a,b\in A$ then $(b,a)\in R$ as $\left | a-b \right |=\left | b-a \right |$

Hence, it is symmetric

Now, let $(a,b)\in R \, and\, (b,c)\in R$

$\left | a-b \right | \, and \, \left | b-c \right |$   are even number i.e. $(a-b)\, and\,(b-c)$ are even

then, $(a-c)=(a-b)+(b-c)$ is even                  (sum of even integer is even)

So, $(a,c)\in R$. Hence, it is transitive.

Thus, it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive i.e. it is an equivalence relation.

The elements of $\{1, 3, 5\}$ are related to each other because the difference of odd numbers gives even number and in this set all numbers are odd.

The elements of $\{2, 4\}$are related to each other because the difference of even number is even number and in this set, all numbers are even.

The element of $\{1, 3, 5\}$ is not related to  $\{2, 4\}$ because a difference of odd and even number is not even.

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