8.4  To what extent do the electronic configurations decide the stability of oxidation states in the first series of the transition elements? Illustrate your answer with examples.

Elements of the first half of the transition series exhibit many oxidation states. manganese shows the maximum number of oxidation states (+2 to +7). The stability of +2 oxidation states increases with the increase in atomic number (as more number of electrons are filled in d-orbital). However, the $Sc$ does not exhibit  +2 oxidation states, its EC is $3d^{1}4s^{2}$. It loses all three electrons to attain stable  $d^{0}$-configuration (noble gas configuration). $Ti(IV)$and $V(+5)$ are stable for the same reason. In the case of manganese, (+2) oxidation state is very stable because of half-filled d-electron($d^{5}$-configuration).

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