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Why are pentahalides of P, As , Sb and Bi more covalent than their trihalides?

7.1     Why are pentahalides more covalent than trihalides ?

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Pentahalides are more covalent than trihalides. This is due to the fact that in pentahalides +5 oxidation state exists while in the case of trihalides +3 oxidation state exists. So, Higher the +ve O.S of the central atom more will be the polarising power and more will be the covalent character in the bond between the central atom and a halogen atom.  Since elements in +5 oxidation state will have more polarising power than in +3 oxidation state, the covalent character of bonds is more in pentahalides.

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