# Give reasons for the following :(a) Transition metals show variable oxidation states. (b) Eo value for (Zn2+/Zn) is negative while that of (Cu2+/Cu) is positive. (c) Higher oxidation state of Mn with fluorine is +4 whereas with oxygen is +7.

(a)    It is because their d-orbitals are incompletely filled.

(b)    Eo[Zn/Zn2+] is negative because of the conversion of $Zn\rightarrow Zn^{2+}$ gives it a filled d5 configuration which is very stable whereas, conversion of Cu to Cu2+ does not give any extra stabity, hence it has positive Eo value.

(c)This is because in case of oxygen, Mn forms pπ-dπ multiple bonding using 2p orbitals of oxygen and 3d orbitals of Mn.
With F, Mn shows +4 because of the single bond formation caused by the unavailability of 2p orbitals in F for multiple bonding.

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