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#### At a fete, cards bearing numbers 1 to 1000, one number on one card, are put in a box. Each player selects one card at random and that card is not replaced. If the selected card has a perfect square greater than 500, the player wins a prize. What is the probability that(i) the first player wins a prize? (ii) the second player wins a prize, if the first has won?

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total cards = 1000
Player wins prize with cards = (529, 576, 625, 676, 729, 784, 841, 900, 961)
Favourable cases = 9
Probability =
Probability that player wins =

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Now the total cards are = 1000 – 1 = 999
Now the total winning cards = 9 – 1 = 8
Probability =
Probability that second player wins after first =

#### A bag contains 24 balls of which x are red, 2x are white and 3x are blue. A ball is selected at random. What is the probability that it is(i) not red? (ii) white?

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total balls = red + white + blue
24 = x + 2x + 3x
6x = 24
x = 4
Red balls = x = 4
White balls = 2x = 2 × 4 = 8
Blue balls = 3x = 3 × 4 = 12
Probability =
Probability that ball is not red =

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total balls = red + white + blue
24 = 6x
x = 4
white balls = 2x = 2 × 4 = 8
Favourable cases = 8
Probability =
Probability of getting on white ball =

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• Faculty Support #### A lot consists of 48 mobile phones of which 42 are good, 3 have only minor defects and 3 have major defects. Varnika will buy a phone if it is good but the trader will only buy a mobile if it has no major defect. One phone is selected at random from the lot. What is the probability that it is(i) acceptable to Varnika? (ii) acceptable to the trader?

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total mobiles = 48
Minor defective = 3
major defective = 3
good = 42
Varnika buy only good so favourable cases = 42
Probability =
Probability that acceptable to Varnika =
Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
total mobiles = 48
good = 42
minor defect = 3
major defect = 3
trader accept only good and minor defect.
So favourable cases = 42 + 3 = 45
Probability =

#### A die has its six faces marked 0, 1, 1, 1, 6, 6. Two such dice are thrown together and the total score is recorded.(i) How many different scores are possible? (ii) What is the probability of getting a total of 7?

Solution. Count the number of sums we can notice by using two dice of (0, 1, 1, 1, 6, 6) type.
We can get a sum of 0 = (0,0)
We can get a sum of 1 = (0,1) , (1,0)
We can get a sum of 2 = (1,1)
We can get a sum of 6 = (0,6) , (6,0)
We can get a sum of 7 = (6,1) , (1,6)
We can get a sum of 12 = (6,6)
We can get a score of 0, 1, 2, 6, 7, 12
Hence we can get 6 different scores.

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total cases = 36
Case of getting sum 7 = (1, 6), (1, 6), (1, 6), (1, 6), (1, 6), (1, 6), (6,1), ( 6,1), (6,1), ( 6,1), (6,1), (6,1),
Number of favourable cases = 12
Probability =
Probability of getting a total 7 =

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• Faculty Support #### In a game, the entry fee is Rs 5. The game consists of a tossing a coin 3 times. If one or two heads show, Shweta gets her entry fee back. If she throws 3 heads, she receives double the entry fees. Otherwise she will lose. For tossing a coin three times, find the probability that she(i) loses the entry fee. (ii) gets double entry fee. (iii) just gets her entry fee.

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total cases = 8(HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, TTT, TTH, THT, HTT)
case in which the lose entry = 8 – (in which she gets entry book + in which she gets double)
= 8 – 6 (HHT, HTH, THH, TTH, THT, HTT) – 1(HHH)
= 8 – 7 = 1
Favourable cases = 1
Probability =
Probability that she will lose money =

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total cases = 8(HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, TTT, TTH, THT, HTT)
case in which she gets double entry = HHH
favourable cases = 1
Probability =
Probability that she gets double entry fee =

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total cases = 8(HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, TTT, TTH, THT, HTT)
case in which she gets entry book = 6(HHT, HTH, THH, TTH, THT, HTT)
favourable cases = 6
Probability =
Probability that she gets entry fees =

#### A child’s game has 8 triangles of which 3 are blue and rest are red, and 10 squares of which 6 are blue and rest are red. One piece is lost at random. Find the probability that it is a(i) triangle (ii) square (iii) square of blue colour (iv) triangle of red colour

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total piece = 8 + 10 = 18
Total triangles = 8
Favourable cases = 8
Probability =
Probability that piece is a triangle

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total piece = 8 + 10 = 18
Total square = 10
Favourable cases = 10
Probability =
Probability that the piece is a square =

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total piece = 10 + 8 = 18
Square of blue color = 6
favourable cases = 6
Probability =
Probability that piece is a square of blue color =

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total piece = 10 + 8 = 18
triangle of red color = 8 – 3 = 5
favourable cases = 5
Probability =
Probability that piece is a triangle of red colour

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• Faculty Support #### A carton of 24 bulbs contain 6 defective bulbs. One bulbs is drawn at random. What is the probability that the bulb is not defective? If the bulb selected is defective and it is not replaced and a second bulb is selected at random from the rest, what is the probability that the second bulb is defective?

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total bulbs = 24
Defective = 6
not defective = 18
Probability that the bulb is not defective =
Let the bulbs is defective and it is removed from 24 bulb.
Now bulbs remain = 23
In 23 bulbs, non-defective bulbs = 18
defective = 5
Probability =
Now probability that the bulb is defective = .

#### Box A contains 25 slips of which 19 are marked Rs 1 and other are marked Rs 5 each. Box B contains 50 slips of which 45 are marked Rs 1 each and others are marked Rs 13 each. Slips of both boxes are poured into a third box and reshuffled. A slip is drawn at random. What is the probability that it is marked other than Rs 1 ?

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total slips = 25 + 50 = 75
Slips marked other than 1 = Rs. 5 slips + Rs. 13 slips
= 6 + 5 = 11
Favourable cases = 11
Probability =
Probability that slips is not marked 1

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• Faculty Support #### There are 1000 sealed envelopes in a box, 10 of them contain a cash prize of Rs 100 each, 100 of them contain a cash prize of Rs 50 each and 200 of them contain a cash prize of Rs 10 each and rest do not contain any cash prize. If they are well shuffled and an envelope is picked up out, what is the probability that it contains no cash prize ?

Solution.  Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total envelopes = 1000
Envelopes with no cash prize = Total envelopes – envelopes with cash prize
= 1000 – 10 – 100 – 200 = 690
Favourable cases = 690
Probability =
Probability that the envelope is no cash prize =

#### A letter of English alphabets is chosen at random. Determine the probability that the letter is a consonant.

Solution. Probability; Probability means possibility. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one
Total alphabets = 26
Total consonant = 21
Favourable cases = 21

Probability =
Probability that alphabet is consonant =  