The stability of +1 oxidation state among Al, Ga, In and Tl increases in the sequence:
Ga < In < Al < Tl
Al < Ga < In < Tl
Tl < In < Ga < Al
In < Tl < Ga < Al
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Inert pair effect -
The phenomenon in which outer shell s electrons (ns2) penetrate to (n-1) d-electrons and thus become closer to nucleus and are more effectively pulled by the nucleus
This results in less availability of ns2 electrons pair for bonding or ns2 electron pair becomes inert.
The order of stability of +1 oscidation state is
This is on account of inert pair effect in which outer shell and electrons penetrate into (n-1) d electrons and thus become closer to nucleus and are therefore less available for bonding.
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