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Confused! kindly explain, The stability of +1 oxidation state among Al, Ga, In and Tl increases in the sequence:

The stability of +1 oxidation state among Al, Ga, In and Tl increases in the sequence:

  • Option 1)

    Ga < In < Al < Tl

  • Option 2)

    Al < Ga < In < Tl

  • Option 3)

    Tl < In < Ga < Al

  • Option 4)

    In < Tl < Ga < Al

 
Answers (1)
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As we learned in concept no

Inert pair effect -

The phenomenon in which outer shell s electrons (ns2) penetrate to (n-1) d-electrons and thus become closer to nucleus and are more effectively pulled by the nucleus

- wherein

This results in less availability of ns2 electrons pair for bonding or ns2 electron pair becomes inert.

 

 The order of stability of +1 oscidation state is

AI<Ga<1n<Tl

This is on account of inert pair effect in which outer shell and electrons (ns^{2}) penetrate into (n-1) d electrons and thus become closer to nucleus and are therefore less available for bonding.


Option 1)

Ga < In < Al < Tl

This is incorrect option

Option 2)

Al < Ga < In < Tl

This is correct option

Option 3)

Tl < In < Ga < Al

This is incorrect option

Option 4)

In < Tl < Ga < Al

This is incorrect option

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