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The methods chiefly used for the extraction of iron and manganese from their ores are respectively:

Option: 1

Self reduction and carbon reduction


Option: 2

Self reduction and electrolytic reduction


Option: 3

Carbon reduction and self reduction


Option: 4

Cyanide process and carbon reduction

Answers (1)


The extraction of iron from its ores primarily involves the process of self reduction, where the iron ore (typically hematite, \mathrm{Fe}_2 \mathrm{O}_3 ) is heated in the presence of carbon monoxide (\mathrm{CO}) or hydrogen \left(\mathrm{H}_2\right). This reduces the iron oxide to metallic iron, which is then collected.

The extraction of manganese from its ores typically involves a combination of processes. The first step is usually the conversion of manganese dioxide \left(\mathrm{Mn} \mathrm{O}_2\right) into manganese(IV) oxide ( \mathrm{MnO}_2 ) or manganese(II) oxide \mathrm{(MnO)} through a reduction reaction. The next step involves the reduction of manganese oxide to metallic manganese using a method known as electrolytic reduction. In this process, an electrolytic cell is used, where a solution of manganese sulfate is electrolyzed, leading to the deposition of metallic manganese on the cathode.

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Deependra Verma

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