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What is adaptive and parallel evolution

What is adaptive and parallel evolution?
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S safeer

Adaptive evolution refers to evolutionary changes that are adaptive to the given environment. Such changes increase survivorship or reproduction by addressing some specific challenge or opportunity presented by the environment. Adaptive evolution is produced by natural selection.

daptive evolution is the reason different species appear designed to live in their particular environments. It also explains why some species appear to have been designed at cross purposes to others. For instance, human adaptations include a complicated immune system, large brains, and dextrous hands capable of producing medicines and health programs to kill off infectious agents

Parallel evolution refers to the evolutionary process wherein two or more species in the same environment develop similar adaptation or characteristics. Example of parallel evolution: North American cactus and the African euphorbia that developed similar adaptation, which is their thick stems and sharp quills to survive the hot, arid climates. These two plant species are of different plant families but live in the same type of environment.