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What is X chromosome inactivation?

Option: 1

The process by which the expression of X-linked genes is balanced between males and females

Option: 2

The process by which a gene's expression is regulated by the number of copies of the gene in the genome

Option: 3

The process by which the X chromosome is replicated during the cell cycle

Option: 4

The process by which a gene is mutated and loses its normal function

Answers (1)


The process by which one of the two X chromosomes in female cells is randomly inactivated early in embryonic development is known as X chromosome inactivation. The inactivated X chromosome condenses and forms a unique structure in the nucleus known as a Barr body, whereas the active X chromosome remains uncondensed and is responsible for X-linked gene expression in that cell. Because males only have one X chromosome and females have two, this process ensures that the dosage of X-linked genes is equalised between sexes. To ensure that the next generation has an equal chance of inactivating either X chromosome, the inactivated X chromosome is reactivated in cells that give rise to eggs or sperm.

Option 1 is the correct answer. 

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Suraj Bhandari

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