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Which of the following metals is NOT commonly extracted through smelting?

Option: 1


Option: 2


Option: 3



Option: 4


Answers (1)


Titanium is not commonly extracted through smelting. Smelting is a process used to extract metals from their ores by heating the ores in a furnace along with a reducing agent. During smelting, the metal is separated from the impurities and obtained in its metallic form.

Zinc, lead, and nickel are commonly extracted through smelting:

a) Zinc: Zinc is commonly extracted from its ore zinc blende (\mathrm{ZnS}) through a smelting process called roasting and then reduction. In this process, the zinc ore is heated in the presence of air to convert it into zinc oxide (\mathrm{ZnO}), which is then reduced using carbon or another reducing agent to obtain metallic zinc.

b) Lead: Lead is also commonly extracted through smelting. The main ore for lead extraction is galena \text{(PbS)}. In the smelting process, galena is heated in a furnace along with a reducing agent such as carbon to obtain metallic lead.

d) Nickel: Nickel is predominantly extracted through smelting processes. The most common method is the pyrometallurgical process, which involves the smelting of nickel ores, such as pentlandite or laterite ores, in a furnace with a reducing agent to produce nickel matte. Further refining steps can be applied to obtain pure nickel.

On the other hand, titanium is typically not extracted through smelting. Titanium occurs in its ore form as titanium dioxide \left(\mathrm{TiO}_2\right) or as titanium-bearing minerals such as ilmenite or rutile. The extraction of titanium involves more complex processes, such as the chloride process or the Kroll process, which utilize chemical reactions and separation techniques rather than smelting.

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