2.8 Answer the following :
(a)You are given a thread and a metre scale. How will you estimate the diameter of the thread?
(b)A screw gauge has a pitch of 1.0 mm and 200 divisions on the circular scale. Do you think it is possible to increase the accuracy of the screw gauge arbitrarily by increasing the number of divisions on the circular scale?
(c) The mean diameter of a thin brass rod is to be measured by vernier callipers. Why is a set of 100 measurements of the diameter expected to yield a more reliable estimate than a set of 5 measurements only?
(a) Take the thread and wrap it around the metre scale. Make sure the coils are packed closely without any space in between. If the diameter of the thread is d and number of turns obtained are n, then (n x d) corresponds to the marking on the metre scale, l.
Therefore, the diameter of the thread would be, d = l/n
(b) Theoretically, by increasing the number of divisions on the circular divisions, the value of least count decreases and hence accuracy increases.(Lower the value of least count, better will be the reading)
But practically, the number of divisions can be increased only up to a certain limit. (Also two adjacent divisions cannot be separated by a distance less than the human eye resolution!)
(c) With an increase in the number of observations, the accuracy of the experiment increases as the error is now distributed over a large range. Hence, a set of 100 measurements of the diameter is expected to yield a more reliable estimate than a set of 5 measurements.