8. Describe the various ways by which seeds are dispersed.
Seeds and fruits of plants are carried away by the wind, water, and animals.
By wind: Winged seeds such as those of drumstick and maple, light seeds of grasses or hairy seeds of aak (Madar) and hairy fruit of the sunflower, get blown off with the wind to far away places.
By water: Some seeds are dispersed by water. These fruits or seeds usually develop floating ability in the form of the spongy or fibrous outer coat as in coconut.
By animals: Some seeds are dispersed by animals, especially spiny seeds with hooks that get attached to the bodies of animals and are carried to distant places. Examples are Xanthium and Urena.
By bursting: Some seeds are dispersed when the fruits burst with sudden jerks. The seeds are scattered far from the parent plant. This happens in the case of castor and balsam.