# 10.2 Discuss the general characteristics and gradation in properties of alkaline earth metals

The general characteristics and gradation in properties of alkaline earth metals-

• General electronic configuration is [noble gas]$ns^{2}$.
• Have two electrons to lose and attain their nearest noble gas configuration.
• have smaller atomic and ionic radii than corresponding alkali metals in the same periods.
• First IE is higher than those elements of group 1
• electropositive nature increase down the group from Be to Ba.
• they give a positive flame test by imparting different colours.(except Be and  Mg)

Chemical properties-

• Be and Mg are inert to oxygen and water. this is because of the formation of a thin layer of oxide on their surface.(powdered Be give BeO and $Be_{3}N_{2}$.
• React with halogens at high temperature to form halogen halides. $[M+X_{2}\rightarrow MX_{2}]$  here M = alkaline metals and X = halogen elements
• All alkaline metals react with hydrogen and form hydrides except for Beryllium
• React with acids to form salts and produce dihydrogen gas. $[M+2HCl\rightarrow MCl_{2}+H_{2}(g)]$
• Act as a reducing agent but not as powerful as alkali metals. Down the group reducing power decreases.
• Also, dissolve in liquid ammonia and give the deep blue coloured solution.$M + (x+y)NH_{3}\rightarrow [M(NH_{3})_{x}]^{2+}+2[e(NH_{3})_{y}]^{-}$

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