11.37. Elements of group 14
(a) exhibit oxidation state of +4 only
(b) exhibit oxidation state of +2 and +4
(c) form and ions
(d) form and ions
Elements of group 14 have 4 valance electrons. so the oxidation state of the group is +4 and +2. Due to the inert pair effect, the stability of +2 is more on moving down the group.
So, the correct option is B