# 12.17.     Explain the terms Inductive and Electromeric effects. Which electron displacement effect explains the following correct orders of acidity of the carboxylic acids?                $(a) Cl_{3}CCOOH> Cl_{2}C\! H\! \, COOH> ClC\! H_{2}COOH$                $(b) CH_{3}CH_{2}COOH> (CH_{3})_{2}CHCOOH> (CH_{3})_{3}C.COOH$

Inductive effect- The permanent displacement of sigma ($\sigma$) electrons along the saturated chain, whenever an electron donating or withdrawing group is present, is known as the inductive effect. It could be $+I/-I$ effect.

Electromeric effect- The complete transfer of the shared pair of $\pi$-electrons to one of the atoms linked by multiple bonds on the demand of attacking reagent. It is a temporary effect. It may be +E(electrons transferred towards attacking reagent) or -E effect(electron transferring away from the attacking reagent).

(a) The order of acidity can be explained by the negative inductive effect ($-I$). As the no. of chlorine atom increases, the $-I$ effect also increases and so, the acidic strength also increases.
$Cl_{3}CCOOH> Cl_{2}C\! H\! \, COOH> ClC\! H_{2}COOH$

(b) This can be explained by the $+I$ effect of the alkyl group. As the number of electron donor group increases, $+I$ effect will also increase. With the increases in $+I$ effect, the acidic character decreases accordingly.
$CH_{3}CH_{2}COOH> (CH_{3})_{2}CHCOOH> (CH_{3})_{3}C.COOH$

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