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14.2.    Explain tropospheric pollution in 100 words.

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Tropospheric pollution, the main cause of this pollution is due to the presence of undesirable substances such as solid or gaseous particles in the lowest layer of the atmosphere.
Major pollutants present in the troposphere-

  1. Gaseous Pollutants-These is mainly, the oxides of the sulphur(SO_2 \&\ SO_3), nitrogen and carbon, hydrogen sulphide(H_2S), hydrocarbons, ozone and other oxidants.
  2. Particulate pollutants- Dust, mist, fumes and smog etc are the main constituents.

Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen are produced by the burning of fossil fuels like coal and automobile fuel and when these gases react with the water to form nitric acid (HNO_3) and sulphuric acid, as a result, acid rain is formed.
2SO_2+O_2+H_{2}O\rightarrow 2H_2SO_{4}\\ 4NO_{2}+O_{2}+2H_{2}O\rightarrow 4HNO_{3}
Acid rain causes harm to plants, trees, and agriculture. It also leads to respiratory problem.
When we burn hydrocarbons (contains hydrogen and carbon) they produce the oxides of carbon. Hydrocarbons are carcinogenic in nature and so that their products are also major pollutants. Carbon monoxide (CO), produced from incomplete combustion of carbon. It has the ability to block the delivery of oxygen to the organs and tissues. Though carbon dioxide is not toxic in nature, it contributes towards global warming by trapping the reflected IR rays.
Particulates of smoke, mist, dust and fumes are harmful to us because they can block our nasal passage and cause many respiratory ailments.




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